Thursday, December 26, 2019
Many of our most powerful memories have to do with school Ã¢â¬â that sort of boot camp before adulthood Ã¢â¬â where we first learned that the greatest achievements and rewards in life come from putting in a day of hard work. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the place that helped define us, where we explored our interests and discovered our natural talents. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s where we met new friends and developed relationships, and perhaps even met our first love. No matter what your age, head back to school figuratively Ã¢â¬â or literally Ã¢â¬â with these quotes from well-known politicians (Edmund Burke, Benjamin Franklin, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Theodore Roosevelt), coaches (Bear Bryant, Mike Krzyzewski, and Vince Lombardi), poets and writers (Robert Frost, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Victor Hugo, Joseph Joubert, Patrick White, and William Butler Yeats), as well as an educator (A.B. Alcott), a businessman (Henry Ford), and psychiatrists (Carl Jung and B.F. Skinner). Many of these famous people have scholastics awards, scholarships, and schools named after them. A.B. Alcott: The true teacher defends his pupils against his own personal influence. Bear Bryant: If I miss coaching that much, I could go to some little school where they didnt recruit, where all the kids wanted to go. I believe I could find somewhere to coach. Edmund Burke: Example is the school of mankind, and they will learn at no other. Ralph Waldo Emerson: You send your child to the schoolmaster, but tis the schoolboys who educate him. Benjamin Franklin: Experience keeps a dear school, but fools will learn in no other. Henry Ford: You cant learn in school what the world is going to do next year. Robert Frost: The chief reason for going to school is to get the impression fixed for life that there is a book side for everything. Victor Hugo: He who opens a school door closes a prison. Joseph Joubert: Education should be gentle and stern, not cold and lax. Carl Jung: One looks back with appreciation to the brilliant teachers, but with gratitude to those who touched our human feelings. The curriculum is so much necessary raw material, but warmth is a vital element for the growing plant and for the soul of a child. Mike Krzyzewski: Basketball was not my main sport in grade school or even the first year of high school. Vince Lombardi: A school without football is in danger of deteriorating into a medieval study hall. Franklin D. Roosevelt: The school is the last expenditure upon which America should be willing to economize. Theodore Roosevelt: A man who has never gone to school may steal from a freight car; but if he has a university education, he may steal the whole railroad. B.F. Skinner: Education is what survives when what has been learnt has been forgotten. Patrick White: I forget what I was taught. I only remember what I have learnt. William Butler Yeats: Education is not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire.
Tuesday, December 17, 2019
BANK LOANS- statistics project on bank loans 1. Introduction This study has been conducted in order to obtain some extra information regarding credit retrieval from banks. We have collected data from 120 people which have contracted bank loans, by asking them to answer our questionnaire. The questionnaire consists of 15 interconnected questions we consider relevant and might help interpret the results better. In a loan, the borrower initially receives an amount of money, called the principal, from the lender, and is obligated to pay back or repay an equal amount of money to the lender at a later time. The loan is generally provided at a cost, referred to as interest on the debt, which provides an incentive for the lender to engageÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦[pic] 2.4. Children Children seem to play a major role in the decision of getting a bank loan of a person or couple. Out of the selected persons, only 27 did not have any children and most of them were in our youngest age group, fact that is understanble considering the implications that raising a child has. Most people had one or two children, but there were two cases in which the person had more than three children. [pic] 2.5. Education level As expected, the education level had a major impact on the number of loans accesed. The Ã¢â¬Å"winingÃ¢â¬ category was the bachelor degree one, as people from this group have a higher level of education and are prone to have better jobs, thus having more chances in receiving a loan from a bank. Furthermore, they are the ones that require more money for investments, which usually comes from banks. The sutyd revealed that 67 people with a bachelor degree had a loan, thus more than 50% of the total interviewed subjects. On the other hand, there were 23 people who had finished high school and responded positive, showing that loans for personal needs attract customers. [pic] 2.6. Profession Profession is linked in a way to the income of a person so it has a big impact on the results. Although we tried to offer a large variety of options, many of the interviewed volunteers chose the option Ã¢â¬Å"OtherÃ¢â¬ . The graph speaks forShow MoreRelatedObtaining A Bank Loan Crisis3102 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesObtaining a bank loan, just as any debt, increases a governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s aggregate amount of debt. Additional debt is of concern for bondholders as it can weaken a governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s debt position. Knowledge of a governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s entire debt burden is essential in credit and risk analysis. Contingent liquidity risk Some bank loan agreements may have covenants or terms that may be more favorable to loan agreements over existing bonds. 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Krietner (1995) states that more experienced workforces are able to impact knowledge to co-workers and even clients thereby improving efficiency and effectiveness. 4.3 Analysis of the trend of bad loans of the bank during the past fiveRead MoreLoan Bank Should Not Be Paid From A Large Well Known Company Like Aeon Essay967 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswhen bank borrows this big amount of money to a large well known company like Aeon, however, in case of not being able to pay back the loan bank will face risks such as: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Not being able to get the money back on time Ã¢â¬ ¢ The extra costs and effort in selling the securities Ã¢â¬ ¢ Aeon might make problems or slow the process of the selling securities Ã¢â¬ ¢ Not being able to recover whole money in short period Ã¢â¬ ¢ Some of the assets might be damage by the time In case that Aeon is not able to pay off the loan bank
Monday, December 9, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Endangered Species and their Protection. Answer: Introduction English assignments are given to the writers for testing their command and fluency over the writing skills. This covers diverse range of topics including business, medical, psychology, environment among others. The focus of this assignment would be on the writing skills of the students regarding the endangered species. Along with this, the assignment would peek into the laws governing the security of these species for preservation of the ecological biodiversity. As a final touch, the assignment would assess the capability of the students to express their thoughts and opinions regarding the life of the endangered species. Insight into the endangered species Habitat destruction of the animals can be considered as man-made. With the advent of civilization, the needs, demands and requirements of humans increased. This resulted in the destruction of the abode of animals (ebscohost.com). As a matter of specification, hunting in the areas of Africa, Europe and Asia have resulted in the extinction of some animals like dodo, great auk and passenger pigeon. Therefore, hunting-habitat loss and extinction can be placed side by side. The major drive behind this is the advancement in civilization and altering lifestyle of the people. Under Species at Risk Act (SARA) (2003), Atlantic Salmon, Woodland and the Peary caribou, Burrowing, Barn, Spotted owls and several whale species have been enlisted at the endangered species. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) has recorded the number of endangered species to be approximately three hundred (Beatley 199). This is seriously a matter of great concern in terms of preserving the ecological balance. Habitat loss is one of the main reasons for accounting 80% of the species as endangered. The major drive behind this habitat loss is urbanization, agriculture, extraction of the natural resources for fulfilling the human needs and infrastructural development. Countering this, hunting animals for using their skin for trade purposes has adversely tagged tigers and elephants as an endangered species. Along with this, overexploitation of the forest trees and land, intrusion of the non-natives and pollution pose as a threat for preservation of the animals. This compels them to encounter tragic death (Schultz 127). Figure: Endangered species of Canada (Source: Pimm 124) In other words, humans need to be blamed for accounting some of the species as endangered or threatened. This is mainly because the humans have snatched the habitat of the animals. For example, huge amount of trees have been cut for making skyscrapers and buildings, which has resulted in the habitat loss of the birds. This has compelled the birds to go in search for substitute habitats. Incapability of the birds to find appropriate habitats has resulted in their death. Turning the attention to the tragic story of the elephants, tigers, deer and rhinoceros, they are the most vulnerable, as they are hunted for their skin (Lampert 1029). The humans, for the satisfaction of their needs, have misutilized Forest trees and lands. The logs of the chopped trees have been used by the traders for supplying them to the carpenters for making furniture of various structures. Along with this, the logs are also used for making cricket bats. Bamboo trees are cut for making papers. All these trade purposes are the live examples of how humans have over-exploited the natural resources for leading a comfortable lifestyle (Weckworth 300). Because of this, the animals are the most affected due to falling prey into being uprooted from the origin. Legislations for protecting the endangered species The growing concern of the endangered species and their being extinct have been effectively managed by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). This is an independent organization, known for preserving the endangered species. This organization has collaborated with the other wildlife agencies for introducing management plans and treaties. Mention can be made of the plans and treatments made for protection of migrating species such as waterfowl (Pimm 126). Figure: Appeal for protecting endangered species (Source: Sawchuk 100) In springs and summer, the trees in Canadian threshold are full of the chirping waterfowls. Along with this, quacking of the ducks, swans and geese reflect the diversity within wildlife. Winter is the time, when these animals migrate to United States and Central America. Low records in the waterfowl population compelled the wildlife agencies of United States and Canada to enter into a treaty regarding the preservation of the habitats for protection of waterfowls. Mexico was the third partner to join this agreement (Schofield 840). The main aim of this agreement was to cease over-hunting. Convention of Conservation of the Migratory Species of Wild Animals came into force in 1983. Here mention can also be made of Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), which was implemented in 1993. Formation of Species at Risk Act (SARA) (2003) actually initiated the process of protection for the endangered species in Canada. The protection of the endangered aquatic species and migratory birds is the responsibility of the government officials of the federal laws, the offices of which are spread all throughout Canada (Sawchuk 102). Figure: Captive breeding in Canada (Soure: Weckworth 304) Egg pulling and captive breeding are some of the modern techniques for preserving the endangered species. Egg pulling proves effective in saving the hatched eggs of the endangered species. For this, research centres are used. In captive breeding, the endangered species are put in captivity for their proper breeding. The environment of this captivity is regulated for yielding positive results. Along with this, gene banks are also productive in terms of chemical reproduction of the endangered plant species (bbc.com). Here, mention can be made of Botanical and Zoological Gardens. The Botanic Gardens conservations International organization provides an estimate of more than 80,000 plant species, who are cultivated. These plant species are either endangered or have lost their habitat in the wildlife. After cultivating these plant species, they are returned to their original habitats. Ecosystem approach is one of the other techniques for preserving the endangered species. This technique involves application of saving techniques while the species are in their natural habitats (bbc.com). Typical examples in this direction are the establishment of the wilderness areas, which are legally protected by the wildlife agencies. Canada Wildlife Act (1973) demarcates certain criteria, through which the federal government officials can be entrusted with the responsibility to look after a national wildlife area or migratory bird sanctuary. Wildlife management is one of the other approaches towards preservation of the endangered species. After identification of the endangered species, plans are prepared regarding their protection and security. These plans include investigation, landscape coverage, food, shelter and the space, which the species requires (Sawchuk 106). Here, the governing body is the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which caters to the act of preserving human health, preservation of the natural environment. This is done after enforcement of the environmental legislations and directives, which the wildlife agencies are expected to abide by for maintaining the ecological balance (Pimm 127). Figure: Wildlife management (Soure: Pimm 246) Conclusion This assignment emerges successful in providing an insight into the endangered species and the legislations functioning for their protection. In-depth insight into the causes, which tags the species as endangered enhances the clarity of the readers regarding the extent to which wildlife is degrading in their quality and quantity. Delving deep into the aspect, humans have selfishly snatched the habitat from the animals for satisfying their needs, demands and requirements. The need of the hour is awareness regarding conservation of habitats, so that ecological balance is maintained. If this balance is destroyed, survival would be difficult even for the humans. This would end the existence on the planet Earth. References Bbc.com,. Congress strips grey wolf endangered species protection world-us-canada. N.p 2011. Web. 2nd Dec 2017 Bbc.com,. Judge orders US to keep protecting 'endangered' wolves . N.p.2010. Web. 2nd Dec 2017 Beatley, Timothy.Habitat conservation planning: endangered species and urban growth. University of Texas Press, 2014. Ebscohost.com ,. Endangered species- Macewan University. N.p 2017. Web. 2nd Dec 2017 Lampert, Adam, et al. "Optimal approaches for balancing invasive species eradication and endangered species management."Science344.6187 (2014): 1028-1031. Pimm, Stuart L., et al. "The biodiversity of species and their rates of extinction, distribution, and protection."Science344.6187 (2014): 1246752. Sawchuk, Jennifer Heibult, et al. "Using stakeholder engagement to inform endangered species management and improve conservation."Marine Policy54 (2015): 98-107. Schofield, Gail, et al. "Satellite tracking large numbers of individuals to infer population level dispersal and core areas for the protection of an endangered species."Diversity and Distributions19.7 (2013): 834-844. Schultz, Jessica A., Emily S. Darling, and Isabelle M. Ct. "What is an endangered species worth? Threshold costs for protecting imperilled fishes in Canada."Marine Policy42 (2013): 125-132. Weckworth, Byron V., et al. "Preferred habitat and effective population size drive landscape genetic patterns in an endangered species."Proc. R. Soc. B. Vol. 280. No. 1769. The Royal Society, 2013.
Monday, December 2, 2019
PERSONAL COMMUNICATION Personal Communication is defined as what information wanted transferred between two different entities. Communication can be easily achieved between two people just through speaking, hand gestures , over the phone, even using a computer to emulate whatever is needed. Communication is commonly defined as the imparting or interchange of thoughts, opinions, or information by speech, writing, or signs. One of the most common forms of personal communication is oral. For example when you go to a fast food restaurant and order your favorite meal, you are communicating orally. Non-Verbal communication is when people do not use their voice to indicate what they want. An example of nonverbal communication would be when you are at a stoplight and the traffic is being directed by a police officer and the officer uses his hand signals to wave you by them. When Communication is effective the information that is wanted is clear and easily understandable. We will write a custom essay sample on Personal Communication or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page There are a few things that also happen with clear communication, improved productivity, better problem solving, fewer grievences, enhanced creativity, better working relationships and greater personal satisfaction. There are two communication skills I posses or used more frequently over any other, which is oral, and digital. Orally I am aa good speaker and clear as possible. My verbal speaking skills are strong because of the background I come from, with all the reading I have done over my life experience. Digital is my favorite and the one communication type which is my greatest strength with oral next. I am very effective with the digital type, whether it is emailing, instant messaging or just sending files across the internet. One of my personal weaknesses in communication is my short attention span. Focusing on one thing at a time usually helps me get things done better or ideas communicated more clear. One goal I would like to set is llearning how to speak to large audiences better and this way I become more comfortable with larger groups. That way I would not have any type of anxiety or nervousness with such groups. In the current profession I work selling tools at Harbor Freight Tools. Personal communication is a must at my job to keep day to day job running smoothly. To keep orders correct or to make sure people donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to carry out the wrong tool and load it for a customer , therefore saving time with the correct parts and also saving money for the company by not paying someone to do the same job twice with the right and wrong part. There are three goals that I will set to improve my personal and professional communication levels. The first goal I set is to learn how to write better for papers . Doing so would take down my stress level when paper assignments are due. Better ability to write would also probably help out with my grades. The second goal I set is better personal communication between myself and loved ones and relationships now and in the future. Since returning from the Marine Corps, I have been told that I am very cold or stonewalled and show no emotion. I would like to be able to show my loved one or friends that I am not emotionless and able to care about things or people. The third goal I have set for myself with my communication skills is to learn a few other languages in the future to expand my knowledge and my ability to communicate with people, maybe even help if I ever travel to foreign lands to get my ideas across and am not completely lost. One of the future communication challenges I believe I will have will be in my future line of work (police officer) keeping calm with subjects when they have done terrible things, or with those who have no communication skills other than the way they were raised, with no morals or things, but I will over come this with my persistence and faith. Personal communication is important in this day and time. Getting your idea across to who or what you want it to get to is of major importance more than ever. With countries have hair triggers and nuclear weapons aimed towards each other, an unclear message or a message that is completely misunderstood could end up with bad consequences that werenÃ¢â¬â¢t meant, had the message been understood the way it was intended. Another example of non-verbal communication between two entities which had monumental cost for both sides with the message completely clear would be when the country of Japan sent forth their fleet and sneak attacked and bombed Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The message was clear and was understood fully. Even with good clear communication people can have catastrophes happen. Works Cited 1. ^ Schwartz, Gary E. ; Simon, William L. ; Carmona, Richard (2008). The Energy Healing Experiments. Simon Schuster. p. 129. ISBN 0743292399.
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Ice cream lab report essays This experiment was about finding the fat content and molecules in foods that were chosen from our campus caf. The experiment concentrated mainly on macronutrients, which are the major sources for energy and include carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. Lipids are needed for the formation of cell membranes, and proteins are needed as enzymes, receptors, and membrane transporters. Molecules may be either polar and stable in water or non-polar and avoid water. Also, in this experiment, micronutrients were involved and are used in the body for overall health and include vitamins and minerals. The procedures for this experiment were as follows: 1. Before entering the lab, students were asked to bring a food source into the lab from the caf to use for the experiment. Some foods were pre-prepared by Dr. Knight such as our food source, ice cream. Dr. Knight had already collected the food from the caf, weighed the food before any extractions or drying, and then put the food into a drying oven to prepare it for our lab. Our group then chose ice cream to conduct our experiment. 2. Our group then scraped out 8.00g of the dried ice cream to use to extract fat and oils into a mortar and pestle. Our group used to mortar and pestle to grind up the portion of the ice cream into a very fine substance. The sample of ice cream was then placed into a coffee filter and funnel and ether was used to wash what oils and fats we could away. This washing was done 3 times to ensure that all the oils and fats were removed. 3. After the washing was complete, the glass rod and mortar and pestle had some of the ice cream still left on it. To ensure that our calculations would be as accurate as possible, we then weighed the mortar and pestle and glass rod before cleaning and also weighed them after cleaning and used the difference to add to our sample. An empty coffee filter ...
Saturday, November 23, 2019
Themes for May Classroom Activities Here is a list of May themes, events, and holidays with correlating activities to go with them. Use these ideas for inspiration to create your own lesson plans and activities, or use the ideas provided. Get Caught Reading MonthÃ The Association of American Publishers nationally launched Get Caught Reading Month to remind people how much fun it is to read. Celebrate this month by having students see how many books they can read in the month of May. The winner of the contest can receive a free book! National Physical Fitness and Sports Month Celebrate by getting active, learning about nutrition, and creating sports crafts. American Bike Month Celebrate American Bike month by having students ride their bikes to school on May 8th and learning the rules of the road and how to be safe. Childrens Book WeekÃ Childrens Book Week often occurs at the beginning of May, but youll need to check the dates each year. Since 1919, National Childrens Book Week has been dedicated toÃ encouragingÃ young readers to enjoy books. Celebrate this day by providingÃ activitiesÃ that will encourage your students to love reading. Teacher Appreciation Week Teacher Appreciate Week occurs in May, but the dates can vary. During this week, schools across the nation celebrate the hard work and dedication of teachers. Try a few ofÃ these teacher appreciation activitiesÃ with your students. National Postcard WeekÃ During the first full week of May, celebrate National Postcard Week by creating postcards and sending them to other students across the country. National Pet Week During the first full week of May, celebrate Pet Week by having students bring in a photograph of their pet to share with the class. National Police WeekÃ National police week occurs the calendar week during which May 15th falls. Invite a local policeman to your school, or plan a field trip to your local police station to honor this week-long celebration. National Transportation Week National Transportation Week usually occurs during the third week of May. Celebrate the community of transportation professionals by having students explore possible jobs in the transportation field. Have students research and fill out an application for a job opening in the field of their choice. Mothers Day MothersÃ dayÃ is observed on the second Sunday of May every year. Celebrate withÃ Mothers Day activities, or try these last-minute lesson plans. You can also use this word list to help you create a Mothers Day poem. Memorial Day Memorial Day is celebrated on the last Monday of May each year. This is a time to celebrate and honor the soldiers that sacrificed their lives for our freedom. Honor this day by providing students with a fewÃ fun activities, and teach students the value of honoring the memory of those who came before us with aÃ Memorial Day lesson plan. May 1: May DayÃ Celebrate May Day with crafts and activities. May 1:Ã Mother Goose Day Explore the truth about Mother Goose by reading the Real Mother Goose. May 1: Hawaiian Lei Day In 1927 Don Blanding came up with having a Hawaiian holiday that everyone can celebrate. Honor his wishes by partaking in Hawaiian traditions and learning about the culture. May 2: Holocaust Remembrance DayÃ Learn about the history of the Holocaust, and read age-appropriate stories such as The Diary of Anne Frank and One Candle by Eve Bunting. May 3: Space DayÃ The ultimate goal of Space Day is to promote math, science, and technology, and inspire children about the wonders of the universe. Celebrate this day by having your students partake in a few fun space-related activities to help nurture their curiosity of the universe. May 4: Star Wars DayÃ This is a day to celebrate the Star Wars culture and honor the films. A fun way to celebrate this day is by having students bring in their action figures. You can use these figures as inspiration to create a writing piece. May 5: Cinco De MayoÃ Celebrate this Mexican holiday by having a party, making a pinata, and making a sombrero. May 6: No Homework DayÃ Your students work hard each day, celebrate this day by giving your students a No Homework Pass for the day. May 7: National Teachers DayÃ Finally, a day to honor and celebrate all of the hard work teachers do! Show your appreciation for our fellow teachers by having students write a letter of appreciation to each of their teachers (art, music, physical education, etc). May 8: National School Nurses DayÃ Honor your school nurse by having students create a special gift of appreciation. May 8: No Socks Day To celebrate this wacky and fun day have students create crafts out of socks, learn the history, and wear fun colored socks to school for the day. May 9: Peter Pan Day On May 9, 1960, James Barrie (the creator of Peter Pan) was born. Celebrate this day by learning about the creator James Barrie, watching the movie, reading the story, and learning the quotes. After reading his quotes have students try and come up with their own. May 14: The Start of the Lewis and Clark ExpeditionÃ This is a great day to teach your students about Thomas Jefferson and his role in the Lewis and Clark expedition. Learn the history of the expedition, and read students the book Who Was Thomas Jefferson by Dennis Brindell Fradin and Nancy Harrison, and visit the Monticello website for photos and additional resources. May 15: National Chocolate Chip Day Whats a better way to celebrate National Chocolate Chip Day than to bake some cookies with your students! For some added fun, try this chocolate bar math lesson. May 16: Wear Purple for Peace DayÃ Help make the world a better place by having all students wear purple for peace day. May 18: Armed Forces DayÃ Pay tribute to the men and women who serve the United States armed forces by having students write a thank you letter to someone in your local armed forces. May 20: Weights and Measures Day On May 20, 1875, an International treaty was signed to establish an international branch of weights and measures. Celebrate this day with your students by measuring objects, learning about volume, and exploringÃ non-standard measures. May 23: Lucky Penny DayÃ Lucky Penny Day is celebrated to reinforce the theory that if you find a penny and pick it up, you will have good luck. Celebrate this fun day with your students by creating a penny craft, counting and sorting pennies, or using pennies to graph Another fun idea is to give students the writing prompt, Once I found a lucky penny and when I picked it up... May 24: Morse Code DayÃ On May 24, 1844, the first Morse code message was sent. Celebrate this day by teaching your students Morse Code. The students will love the secretiveness of it all. May 29: Paper Clip DayÃ In 1899 Johan Vaaler, a Norwegian inventor invented the paper clip. Honor this amazing little wire by having students come up with a new way to use it. May 29: John F. Kennedys BirthdayÃ John F. Kennedy was one of the most beloved United States Presidents of our time. Honor this remarkable man and all of his accomplishments by having students create a KWL Chart, then read your students his biography, called Who Was John F. Kennedy? by Yona Zeldis McDonough. May 31:Ã World No Tobacco DayÃ World No Tobacco Day is a day to reinforce and highlight the health risks associated with tobacco use. Take time out on this day to stress the importance of why students should not smoke.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Constractivisim - Essay Example The practice of constructing knowledge from experiences and ideas best describes constructivism. On the same note, assimilation and accommodation enhances the extent to which knowledge is constructed. It is important to note that different people have different internal representations that build diverse understanding of the world. In this respect, frameworks inform the understanding of the world differ from one person to another. The importance of this observation is that learn to create new experiences without altering their framework of understanding. This allows an individual to assimilate emerging experiences while capitalizing on what they already know. In addition, accommodation in the context of constructivism helps align reframed mental frameworks with new experiences and/or ideas (Fosnot, 2013). In so doing, individuals learn to construct knowledge from emerging trends in the world. Constructivism theory is an integral part of technological development. For example, programming languages are always changing. Such changes are subject to the influence of diverse and dynamic factors, but the common denominator is that they produce relevant knowledge that enhances the understanding of the world. Programming is notably an experience and the expression of an idea. On the same note, programming gives rise to new experiences and ideas that people choose to assimilate and/or accommodate. A key example in that regard is the use of Logo programming language, which Duffy and Jonassen (2013) essentially associate with constructivism. Most importantly, technology is a key tool in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s instructional strategies. More and more academic institutions are increasingly embracing the use of educational technology. This shows that technology is an important factor in the construction of knowledge. Additionally, individual experiences and ideas, with assimilation and accommo dation, construct knowledge
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Exploring a Communicative Event in Saudi Lingua Culture - Essay Example In teaching aid, communication is necessary particularly when teaching people of different native languages. Event can appear in many forms. For example, real events demonstrated when a message passes through electronic media such as films or media houses. There is a set of theories analyzing communication events exist. The most essential method of communication is conversation. Human beings, therefore, communicate to share information and expand their social relationships (Seindlhofer, 2005, p.54). Most of the influential and active discussions take place through conversations. Simple talks both official and non-official and education related take place through chatting. If a CE involves two parties not knowing each other, that is strangers, there is no engagement (Seindlhofer, 2005, p.54). The success of any communication depends on understanding between the parties involved. Understanding of each other leads to an interaction between the involved parties. This essay focuses on Eng lish language as a communication tool. CE refers to Ã¢â¬Å"An exchange with obvious boundaries in a typically-occurring situation, where the participants have a clear role relationshipÃ¢â¬ (Saville-Troike, 1989, p.107). For a language teacher to succeed, he needs be careful with the way he delivers information to his students. Successful teachers recommend thorough observations of local speakers because they engage in varying CE in order to understand each other (Saville-Troike, 1989, p.107). The teacher should have the ability to give CE models after first learning the native speakersÃ¢â¬â¢ language (Saville-Troike, 1989, p.107). For effective language teaching, the teacher needs to have the skill to know and speak other languages. Lingua franca as a language This refers to a communication tool used by a group of people from different native origins to communicate. Lingua Francas form the third mode of communication language from the original languages of the communicating sid es (Helena, 2011). Studies show that a lingua franca language may turn to be the common language if it widely spreads in an area. A good example of a lingua franca language is pidgin. Pidgin combines different vocabularies of native languages (Helena, 2011). The only distinction between lingua franca and pidgin is that members of the same native language do not speak pidgin but instead speak their native language. Pidgin does not have any original speakers. Modern Lingua Francas In the current society, global communication has succeeded due to development of lingua francas. There are a number of recognized communication languages in different regions. For example, the official languages recognized by United Nations (UN) include Arabic, Chinese, English, Spanish and French. (Fernandez-Cardenas & Silveyra-De La Garza, 2010). This shows how lingua franca languages have developed to international recognition. Several developments of pidgin are evident as regular contacts between differe nt people broaden. However, most of the pidgins lack verbs, articles and nouns, their use has spread since they encourage communication between parties. Components of Communication Event (CE) In order to further, explore communication events, Saville-Troike 1989, p. 107 explained the components of CE. Some of these components include the event type, the setting and purpose of the events. Other components are function setting of different happenings, appearance and key participants. Manner in this case refers to message form and content. Guidelines include
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Rob Parsons Promotion Essay The problem with RobÃ¢â¬â¢s promotion is a recurring one, especially in professional services firms and it refers to performance evaluation and more broadly to talent management. Should a person that substantially exceeds expectations in certain skills but significantly lacks other skills, be promoted by virtue of the fact that the first can somehow off-set the latter? There is no doubt that Rob is a star in his position at Morgan Stanley. Businesswise, he has a proven track record and great support from his colleagues and clients. However, at the beginning of his career with the company, he needed to improve is skills in the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s management area. I agree with the position taken by Paul Nasr, not to promote him to managing director after his first year with the firm. I believe RobÃ¢â¬â¢s self-evaluation was the best summary of the problems he was facing: on one side, he recognized his need to develop some soft skills but on the other side, his long-term career goal was not in line with the set of management and leading skills required by the table of professional positions. In light of the evaluations received at the end of his second year, I think that Stuart should sponsor Rob to be promoted as managing director. Rob has shown that he had understood the problems and that he trusted the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s evaluation and coaching system. He took the message to heart in a lot of different ways. He made tremendous efforts to improve his management skills and RobÃ¢â¬â¢s evaluations all noted an extraordinary amount of progress on the team player front, even if some evaluators continued to express reservations about his style. I believe the key improvement for Rob is that he understood the culture, set of values and core competencies on which the company is based. I think that one of the strengths of organizations based on partnerships is the leverage on the diversity of the partners and the various contributions they can bring to the firm. Rob is a star in his commercial orientation and he can successfully lead and develop the business of Morgan Stanley and he can be backed up by other managing directors in areas where he is weaker but in which they excel.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Easter Uprising People strive for independence and will do anything for it. In 1916 many of the Irish strongly wanted to take hold of Dublin, with the purpose to wipe out the British rule in Ireland, and hoping to become entirely independent. The Irish wanted to have a republic, and become free from the British rule. The leaders before the Easter Uprising started to realize that the public would show their support against the British. The leaders of this rebellion came together to fight for what they believed in. The independence of the Irish was very important and showed throughout their struggle how hard it was to achieve their goal. The Uprising was supported by a group of nationalists that wanted independence for Ireland. "Around 1,250 people started the rebellion" (Ireland). The instigator of the Easter Uprising was a man named Thomas Clarke who brought in two other men to support him. The Easter Uprising was strongly influenced by two men named Patrick Pearse, and James Conolly. On t he morning of the Uprising, Patrick Pearse labeled the movement, "an all but suicidal mission" (Newman). Major changes in Ireland happened because of the Easter Uprising. The effects were extremely important in the future of the Irish. People of a political group called the Sinn Fein declared the independence for the Irish. The statement started the guerilla ware fare of the IRA on English forces. On Easter Sunday 1916, a group called The Irish Republican Army (IRA) changed the way of the Irish. "The IRA rebels seized buildings in Dublin as a start of an uprising" (Coffey). The British troops quickly defeated the rebels, and many were taken prisoner and were put on trial to be executed. The IRA shot many of the Irish without any warning. The people were very angry with everything the IRA was doing to them. The civil war of 1922, and the Irish Republican army was formed and grew very violent towards everyone. "In 1919, the IRA shot two Irish policemen in county Tipperary, and this marked the beginning of what is now known as the war of Independence" (History of Ireland). The Civil War was the only conflict in Ireland during the twentieth-century that involved for an extended period of predictable fighting a nd it certainly did not serve as a representative for improvement.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
This book narrates the problems faced by the mice belonging to the family of Mrs. Frisby who is the main character of this fiction. The story of Frisby shows that she had the courage and determination to look after her family after the death of her husband. After the death of her husband Mrs. Frisby was expected to take care of her children. The story begins with the description of the life style of Mrs. FrisbyÃ¢â¬â¢s family and the problems faced by this family as they depended on the humans for their survival. Due to the problems that miceÃ¢â¬â¢s family faced during winter, they were forced to change their places of habitation. However, FrisbyÃ¢â¬â¢s son Timothy had a weak health. Due to his illness, Frisby could not carry her family to the safer place during winter, but it was important to find some solution the health problem of her son. This book consists of various adventures of Frisby who was able to even challenge a dragon. Frisy was able to save a crow who advised the mouse to go to old owl who was reluctant to give any advice until he heard the name of Mr. Frisby. Indirectly, Mr. Frisby is also mentioned in the book although he was dead. The old owl advised Mrs. Frisby to seek help from the nest of rats, which lived under a rose bush. After hearing the name of Mr. Frisby, the rats decide to help the mouse. It is curious to note that the rats led an independent life as they were able to establish their own colony with electricity, roads, streets, lifts, and various other facilities. Thus, Mrs. Frisby is introduced to the secret world of the rats. It is interesting to note that rats had mastered the art of reading and the young rats were expected to learn reading. The rats had succeeded in imitating the humans by establishing their own civilization in this secret world. The rats execute the plan of lifting the block of Mrs. FrisbyÃ¢â¬â¢s house and shifting it to a safer location. This shows that these animals had mastered the art of modern technology by the use of latest machineries. Through this mastery of human skills, the rats had become independent of the control of human beings. Although the main characters are mice and rats, the story reveals the human character and values found in these animals as they think and behave like humans. For example, it is surprising to note that mouse goes to the owl and seeks the advice as there is a general perception that owl is always looking for the flesh of mouse. Mrs. Frisby shows her motherly affection when her son falls ill. The problems faced by the mouseÃ¢â¬â¢s family are also depicted in the fiction. Naturally, this book has attracted the attention of many students who study in elementary schools. Initially the book does not reveal the secret world of the rats. By doing so, the author is able to sustain the curiosity of the readers. Apart from mouse and rats, other characters in this book are Mrs. FrisbyÃ¢â¬â¢s friend Mr. Ages, the crow, Jeremy, and the owl. Mrs. Frisby also learns that her husband was a close companion of the rats and out of respect for her husband the rats had agreed to help her. The reader is also informed that the rats had earlier depended on the human beings; later they decided to migrate to their present place where they established their own civilization. This book has been liked by the younger generation as there is description of the human character of the animals. Bibliography OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien, R.C. (1971). Mrs. Frisby and the Rats of Nimh. New York: Puffin
Sunday, November 10, 2019
What types of systems are needed to ensure that all individuals have access to the benefits of our community as well to bring health and effectiveness to an organization or the broader community? There are two systems of process that ensure all individuals have access to the benefits of our community. The first is due process which is the ability of getting noticed and participating in the decisions that affect an individual (Baird, 2011). The second is substantive process which makes sure people know and understand the rules (Baird, 2011). How do we ensure fair treatment, fair administration of rules, fair compensation, fair blame, and ensure due process to allow all opinions to be heard? We can make ethical decisions by creating fair systems for resolution of disputes and policies that state expectations (Baird,2011). We should care for all members and institutions of the community when allocating resources (Baird, 2011). We should give to each member of the community knowing they are a part of the happiness of the entire community. How might the Relationship Lens be misused through abuse of power or personal hubris? Having an excessive pride and arrogance can move us from unintentional ethical wrong doing to intentional wrong doing (Baird, 2011). Cite a recent example in the news. I have an example of hubris in my work place that I will share. Our current CEO has chosen to take his annual bonus when he made the decision to freeze raises and increase the employee cost of health insurance. He does not pay the premiums of his health insurance policy but raised the cost for all employees. He purchased a very expensive piece of equipment costing over $2.5 million in 2011 causing an operating loss for the year. This equipment holds a great deal of prestige for him in the healthcare industry. I have been very disappointed that he has made the decisions he has made with total disregard for all other employees affected. His excessive pride and arrogance has caused him to intentionally act unethically. What types of systems are needed to ensure that all individuals have access to the benefits of our community as well to bring health and effectiveness to an organization or the broader community? Bella and Frederick both use the concept of moral ecology to callus to greater responsibility for the community.Frederick also reminds us that companies and corporations and communities at large have responsibilities toward life Ã¢â¬â conserving values such fairness, unselfishness,and restraint, that both create and sustain human collective life. Judeo-Christian tradition calls us to responsibility for others. Due process is used to achieve our goals, assuring that those without access to power have equal opportunity to thrive. How might the Relationship Lens be misused through abuse of power or personal hubris? Cite a recent example in the news. (If you donÃ¢â¬â¢t know the meaning of hubris, look it up and include its definition as you answer this question.) As Timothy Clark noted, Ã¢â¬Å"The ambition to govern oneÃ¢â¬â¢s fellow beings tend to view leadership as the pathway to glittering world of personal reward. Another risk that we run as we work is to become authoritarian and paternalistic. Another bias to watch is entrainment,where we are so cut up in work that we forget to ask important key questions. Hubris, excessive pride and arrogance,moves us from unintentional ethical wrongdoing to intentional wrongdoing. Biggest example I can recall is resent war in Iraq,President Bush and VP Chaney failed to show responsibilities as an ethical decision makers. How do you know when you are improperly using your personal power?How do you know when your life is out of balance? How do you bring it back into balance? The focus of the Relationship Lens is always fundamental fairness. Lens is inviting us to live a life in relationship with others in community. If decision maker is not balancing the personal need of individual to community needs, if he or she not subordinates own rights to that of the group. After making the decision one must ask himself questions, analyze decision through different ethic lenses. What improvements could we make on our process of ethical analysis? Did we like the results? What were the problems with the process? What decision we are not comfortable with? As we reflect on the results,we can put strategic for the future and became more ethical in our decisions in other words more ethically mature. We also can improve and bring our self to balanced ethical ground. a. The systems I believe that are needed to ensure access to benefits in our community are education, health, and judicial. An education system is important to help equip individuals with necessary skills that will help them to earn a living and contribute to the well being of their society. A health care system will help to maintain a healthy community by addressing all health needs. Having a judicial system will ensure that justice is dispensed and that fairness and adherence of the laws are followed. b. A Democratic System of Government which is guided by the Constitution can assure fair treatment, fair administration of rules, fair compensation, fair blame, and ensure due process to allow all opinions to be heard. The Constitution is used as a guide by Government to craft legislation, laws and regulations to ensure that there is fairness and justice in society. d. We may know that we are improperly using our personal power when for example we are in a position of leadership or power and use our office to influence others to do things our way. We may realize that our life is out of balance when we become depressed, suicidal, suffer from addition and is easily enraged. We can to my mind bring our life back into balance by doing introspection, and accepting responsibility. What types of systems are needed to ensure that all individuals have access to the benefits of our community as well to bring health and effectiveness to an organization or the broader community. There are several systems that are design to allow access to benefits. These include laws that are used to identify and support individuals who would require such services. If a medical provider or a school employee notices something that might be child abuse or elder abuse, they are required by law to report it. By reporting a possible incident a wide net of services are employed to investigate and perhaps implement services needed by the individual. Laws are also passed to describe who gets and what benefits are available to an individual. Social agencies, organizations and religious groups are often used to educate, locate and provide for the individuals in need. The media in various forms is often used to promote changes or additions to the benefits. A well educated community is the best weapon in the organizations arsenal. How do we ensure fair treatment, fair administration of rules, fair compensation, fair blame and ensure due process to allow all opinions to be heard? It is sometimes very difficult to ensure all of the fairness listed above in the heat of the moment. In order to do so one must step back and remove oneself from the heat of the event. When emotions become to involved it is difficult to implement fairness. This can be seen when the media appears to Ã¢â¬Å"convictÃ¢â¬ someone before they are arrested and tried. Laws have been passed to help identify areas that should be address fairly and these include race, age, disability ,and religion. Legislation has also determined a federal minimal wage and passed laws dealing with equal pay for equal work. Labor Unions often campaign for certain employment benefits for its members. The knowledge that a businessÃ¢â¬â¢s could be sued for unfairness or prejudice is another protection. Businesses often have a policy Manuel that addresses how they will deal with certain issues. Knowledge of an individuals rights and duties written down gives all sides the knowledge of what is considered right and wrong in that group. . How do you know when you are improperly using your personal power? How do you know when your life is out of balance? How do you bring it back into balance? Self analysis and appraisal is required to obtain this knowledge. Every once in a while one must ask oneself if one is following the right path. Listening to others is a good way to identify if one is improperly using ones power. It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean they are always correct but it may point your self reflection in the right direction. Checking ones ethical compass is another. I know when my life is out of balance when I can not be everywhere at once. Work stresses, problems and information should stay there. Family and personal business should not interfere with work or school. When I find myself spending time from one part of my life dealing with another part of my life then I am our of balance. Again one must step back and access what is going on and figure out if it is going to be temporary or long term. One can then figure out a course of action and decide what is needed. Being brave enough to ask for help if needed. Ã Superwoman is an concept promoted by the media that does exist, rather one needs to make sure one is not overwhelmed. In addition if it is a major project or event sometimes if I break it into pieces it is easier to digest and equilibrium returns. What types of systems are needed to ensure that all individuals have access to the benefits of our community as well to bring health and effectiveness to an organization or the broader community? The types of systems that are need to that all individuals have access to the benefits of our community as well to bring health and effectiveness to an organization or a broader community would be systems such electricity which allows everyone to have access to light, television for allowing the world to come into your place of living, and also the telephone systems that allows individuals to communicate with the world through voice. 2. How do we ensure fair treatment, fair administration of rules, fair compensation, fair blame and ensure due process to allow all opinions to be heard? We ensure fair treatment , fair administration of rules, fair compensation, fair blame and ensure due process to allow all opinions to be heard by establishment organizations such as the Equal Employment opportunity commission(EEOC) for fair treatment. Fair administration of rules would include organizations such as the Federal Trade Commission(FTC) and the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration(FMSCA)Fair compensation organizations would include the Department of Labor(DOL). Fair blame and due process would be the Justice system. 3. How do you know when you are improperly using your personal power? How do you know when your life is out of balance? How do you bring it back into balance. Where in truth good choices are not made. Also power is abused, it can result from an imbalance of information education or financial resources, than the other party may not be able to freely choose what I wants to do. When power is out of balance, we often are using the persons as a means to our preferred ends rather than treating the person as an end, a human being with a autonomy and choices in how to live his life. To bring power back into balance is to establish a connection with your inner spirit and knowing the right thing to.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Googles Instant Messaging review Free Online Research Papers Recently, Google has been making plans to start an instant messaging service. This is in response to the popularity of other instant messaging programs such as AIM, Skype, Vonage and other internet based platforms. There was speculation on whether Google was going to use the funds from its fairly recent 4 billion dollar stock sale to launch the program, although Google denies this. They say they are going to try and merge there way into the market and fund Ã¢â¬Å"Google TalkÃ¢â¬ with other firms offerings. A smart idea, seeing that many companies are trying to buy their way onto the Google Ã¢â¬Å"bandwagonÃ¢â¬ . In 2004, Google started their own e-mail service, dubbed Ã¢â¬Å"GmailÃ¢â¬ . Many suggest that the new Google Talk software is the missing link in the overall success and future of Gmail. By integrating this instant messaging program with their already existing email program, Google hopes to lure more users to sign up for Gmail and thus use Google Talk. Obviously, if the plan works, they will draw huge new revenues with their already dominating advertising market. One big difference between Google Talk and other instant messaging providers such as Skype and Vonage, will be that it will not allow users to make phone calls to land lines or mobile phones. With the ongoing demand for this type of service, it could possibly be the weakest link in GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s plan to eventually completely dominate the market. One important factor though, is that Google plans to expand its software so that users can communicate with others on different platforms such as AIM or Yahoo. Industry analysts and experts, however, warn that Google has a lot of ground to make-up in the competition with industry giants aforementioned. Research Papers on Google's Instant Messaging reviewAnalysis of Ebay Expanding into AsiaThe Project Managment Office SystemBionic Assembly System: A New Concept of SelfOpen Architechture a white paperTwilight of the UAWPETSTEL analysis of IndiaMarketing of Lifeboy Soap A Unilever ProductRiordan Manufacturing Production PlanAnalysis Of A Cosmetics AdvertisementDefinition of Export Quotas
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Words Beginning With For- and Fore- Words Beginning With For- and Fore- Words Beginning With For- and Fore- By Maeve Maddox English has several words that begin with the prefixes for- and fore- Sometimes the prefix means Ã¢â¬Å"beforeÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"in front of.Ã¢â¬ Sometimes it means Ã¢â¬Å"outside,Ã¢â¬ a meaning derived from an Old French element related to modern French hors, as in the French borrowing hors dÃ¢â¬â¢oeuvre, Ã¢â¬Å"outside the main course.Ã¢â¬ Perhaps the most frequently misspelled of this category is the word found at the beginning of many books: Foreword. A bookÃ¢â¬â¢s foreword is a preface, a brief essay not necessarily essential for the understanding of the text of a book and commonly written by someone other than the author of the text. Confusion arises from the existence of the adjective forward. As an adjective, forward is used to describe something that is in front of or ahead of something else. On a ship, things located towards the front are said to be forward, for example, the Ã¢â¬Å"forward hold.Ã¢â¬ A Ã¢â¬Å"forward childÃ¢â¬ in a positive sense is a clever child, precocious for its years. In a negative sense, a Ã¢â¬Å"forward childÃ¢â¬ is like the ones on television who exchange quips, insults, and double entendres with adults; again, the sense is that the child is ahead of its years. The three verbs forecast, foretell, and foresee all mean Ã¢â¬Å"to predictÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"to prophesy,Ã¢â¬ but have different connotations: The weatherman forecast showers for Monday. (prediction based on analysis of data) The gypsy foretold GwenÃ¢â¬â¢s marriage to a rancher. (prediction based on mysterious knowledge) HaroldÃ¢â¬â¢s business experience enabled him to foresee the consequences of his partnerÃ¢â¬â¢s decision. (prediction based on personal experience) Some other verbs beginning with fore- in which the sense is Ã¢â¬Å"happening beforeÃ¢â¬ are: forebode: to announce beforehand. Forebode and forbid come from OE verbs with similar meanings. Forbid now means Ã¢â¬Å"to command a person not to do something.Ã¢â¬ Forebode means to announce ahead of time. The word forbode carries a connotation of dread, for example, Ã¢â¬Å"Vanishing act of middle class forebodes turbulent time.Ã¢â¬ The verb bode, on the other hand, means simply Ã¢â¬Å"to predictÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"to give promise of somethingÃ¢â¬ and may be used in either a positive or a negative context: Stephen Colberts Super-Charming Late Show Appearance Bodes Well for His New Gig. Scottish independence does not bode well for its economy foreordain: to determine in advance. Ã¢â¬Å"His hostility drives the drama in the first act, and his frenetic dancing in the second makes his demise seem foreordained.Ã¢â¬ forewarn: to warn or caution in advance. This quotation from Charles Kingsley has become a proverb: Ã¢â¬Å"To be forewarned is to be forearmed,Ã¢â¬ (i.e., knowledge of what is about to happen is like having a weapon with which to defend yourself). In the following nouns the prefix has the sense of Ã¢â¬Å"beforeÃ¢â¬ : forelock: A lock of hair growing from the fore part of the head, just above the forehead. In old novels youÃ¢â¬â¢ll find references to farm workers and other social inferiors touching or tugging their forelocks to show respect to their superiors: Ã¢â¬Å"There was plenty of bobbing from the girls and pulling of forelocks from the boys.Ã¢â¬ The expression Ã¢â¬Å"to take opportunity by the forelockÃ¢â¬ means to take advantage of a situation as aggressively as possible: Ã¢â¬Å"He seized opportunity by the forelock and secured the best aid possible in his businessÃ¢â¬ forefather: an ancestor, one who has come before. foresight: The action or faculty of foreseeing what must happen. For example, Ã¢â¬Å"[Jacob Little] had unusual foresight, which at times seemed to amount to prescience.Ã¢â¬ In the following verbs, the prefix is from the French borrowing that meant Ã¢â¬Å"outsideÃ¢â¬ : forbear: to abstain or refrain from Ã¢â¬Å"The defendants were asked to forbear to arrest Mr. Swift.Ã¢â¬ forswear: to swear falsely; to abandon or renounce Ã¢â¬Å"As waggish boys in game themselves forswear, So the boy Love is perjured everywhere.Ã¢â¬ A Midsummer NightÃ¢â¬â¢s Dream, I, i, 240-241. forfeit: to lose the right to; give up Ã¢â¬Å"The execution of a murderer does not violate his right to life, because he forfeited that right when he committed a murder.Ã¢â¬ John Locke forget: to lose remembrance of forgive: to give up resentment forsake: to give up, renounce foreclose: to preclude, hinder, or prohibit (a person) from (an action). Although spelled fore-, the prefix in foreclose has the Ã¢â¬Å"outÃ¢â¬ meaning, as in Ã¢â¬Å"to shut out.Ã¢â¬ Finally, there are two words that look almost alike, but have quite different origins: forebear (noun): An ancestor, forefather, progenitor (usually more remote than a grandfather). This noun is formed from the prefix fore- (before) and an old word, beer. This beer has nothing to do with the beverage. Instead, it comes from the verb to be. A be-er is one who exists. A forebear existed before you did. forbear (verb): to abstain or refrain from something. Ã¢â¬Å"Woman, forbear that weeping!Ã¢â¬ Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Using "a" and "an" Before WordsHyper and HypoSupervise vs. Monitor
Sunday, November 3, 2019
/Literary Analysis - Research Paper Example One of the potent criticisms of the text lies in the psychoanalysis and the social psychology that were very much inherent during the time of the storyÃ¢â¬â¢s publication related with the newly envisaged theory of sexual selection by Darwin. However, the story, Ã¢â¬Å"The Story of an HourÃ¢â¬ brings into contention many critical and psychological theories operating subtly within the tight-lipped and fast paced plot of the story which has a social importance at the contextual level as well. This essay intends to analyses the story, Ã¢â¬Å"The Story of an HourÃ¢â¬ and keeping in central position the character of the protagonist Louise Mallard helps to explain the socio-psychological position of the women in the contemporary society. THE STORY OF AN HOUR: AN ANALYSIS The story, Ã¢â¬Å"The Story of an HourÃ¢â¬ centers round the life and struggle of a woman name Louise Mallard. The story had to face a volley of criticisms for considering a woman character as its protagonist and evoked a volley of controversies for selecting a woman at the center of the plot during the late Victorian era. In addition, the fact that the woman feels elated by hearing the news of her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s death, the kind of liberation of soul along with feeling of being free expressed after understanding that her husband is not going to return any more enable to envision the story as a feminist text at the outset. The confusion that whether the text, Ã¢â¬Å"The Story of an HourÃ¢â¬ is a story of liberation or tragedy will always remain intact. At one hand, the death of her husband who has never shown enough concern or care to love his wife comes into surface. On the other hand, Louise starts to believe that her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s death is going to bring him freedom for her physically, mentally and sexually. And, this has to be taken into consideration that Louise is a representative of her time and society. The story is a raging war against patriarchy prevailing at the ChopinÃ¢â ¬â¢s time and challenges the idea of marriage and the false and the much hyped values associated with it. This can be well understood through the predicament and emotional turmoil that the protagonist of the story undergoes within an hour time span when she is not sure of her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s death. In the book, Ã¢â¬Å"The Story of an Hour : Kate ChopinÃ¢â¬â¢s Voice Against Patriarchy Ã¢â¬Å" by Anonym quotes worthily that Ã¢â¬Å"Chopin made women the subject of the patriarch-centered world by stressing the male boundaries and showing alternative ways for women to get out of this world by developing an own identityÃ¢â¬ (Anonym 12). Breaking the shackles of married life and liberating women only for the sake of liberation were not the sole agenda of the story. On the contrary, Chopin wanted to give a progressive dimension by providing a voice to a woman who wanted to be free and seek her own identity. The selection of Louise as the protagonist was intentional and to review the emotional turmoil of a woman who is not sure to express grief or gaiety at the news of her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s death through the eyes of Louise herself was deliberate. At this juncture, another female protagonist Josephine could have been a sorted choice or even a third person narrator. However, one has to understand the motif of Chopin behind framing the story and presenting it through the voice of the protagonist herself. Alan Cheuse insightfully mentions in the book, Ã¢â¬Å"
Friday, November 1, 2019
Macro & Micro Economics - Essay Example Conditioning, if credible can be used for reducing the inflationary consequences of a resulting increase in aggregate demand from the post crisis deleveraging. Even after reducing the benchmark rate at zero, the Federal Open market Committee which sets policies tried to continue to add stimulus by pledging to keep the interest rates low through 2014. Evan continues to make explicit promises by putting forth that the Federal Reserve would continue to tighten the policy until and unless the rate of unemployment came down below 7% and inflation breached at 3% (Aki, Ã¢â¬Å"BloombergÃ¢â¬ ). Evans and the economists Jonas Fisher, Jeffrey Campbell and Alejandro Justiniano mentioned in an article presented by the Brookings Institution in Washington that forward guidance in the statements of monetary policies have been effective in increasing yields through Corporate Bonds and Treasury Notes since the beginning of the global financial crisis (Aki, Ã¢â¬Å"Not Voting MemberÃ¢â¬ ). Reference of article to theory- Monetary Growth and Inflation The article above is linked to the theories in macroeconomic. There is strong empirical evidence which shows a direct relationship between money supply in the economy and long term price inflation for the rapid increases in the supply of money within the economy. This is the reason why governments rely strongly on monetary policies for controlling inflation. Economists have identified two links between the supply of money in the economy and the rates of inflation (Hetzel, p.205-206). Firstly an increase in the supply of money, if not trapped within the financial system as being excess reserves can lead to the sustained increase in the level of real production rather than inflation after a recession when many of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s resources remain underutilized. Moreover, they have emphasized on the changes in the velocity of money, which is the ration between the nominal gross domestic product and the supply of money which leads to an increase in the money supply can bring about an exaggerated effect on the growth of nominal gross domestic product (Hetzel, p.205-206). Researchers have suggested the use of conventional monetary policies which influences the macroeconomic factors by bringing about changes in the credit availability in the economy and also the rate of interest or the price of the credits. The monetary policies act upon the rates of interest and consequently the money supply too. The control in money supply through adjustment of interest rates control inflation rates in the economy. However, it is important that in such cases the real interest rates are considered and not the nominal interest rates. This is because the real value of a loan diminishes with inflation and simultaneously revenues in businesses and household incomes also rise with inflation. Thus the ability of payment of a loan increases with rise in inflation rates. However, researchers have also identified certain imitations with the use of monetary policies controlling inflation rates (Baumeister & Benati, p.5-7). In the 1990s inflation rates were extremely low, but this was not because of tight monetary policies. During the same
Wednesday, October 30, 2019
The Necklace by Guy de Maupassant and Roman Fever by Edith Wharton - Essay Example This essay explores the importance of endings in two stories "The Necklace" by Guy de Maupassant, and "Roman Fever" by Edith Wharton. Ending have been used to facilitate an unexpected change of plot /achieve plot twist towards the end in the two stories. The type of ending used here is called twist ending. There is an unexpected change of outcome towards the end of the story and this brings up an unexpected conclusion to the story. For example, the two women start talking about the mix of love relationships they had before they just got married. Mrs. Ansley had been in love with the husband of Mrs. Slade before he married her. The two woman had been living as friends since childhood and were now chatting as friends as well. Just towards the end of the story, they reveal the grudges they have had against each other all this years and the tricks they had played on each other. For old woman, and both being widows, this is not the kind of thing anyone would expect them to hold much impor tance to youthful love battles (Wharton 1). Looking at the story the necklace, the author has also successfully managed to use a twist ending. Loisel and her had bought a new necklace for Mrs. Forester to replace the lost necklace and had kept this as a secret between themselves for 10 good years. They had been paying dearly for it and no one would expect that Loisel would want to reveal it least it brings up an enemity between them. Surprisingly, Loisel decided to tell Mrs. Forester the truth. To her amazement, she was not angered, instead, Mrs. Forester showed love to her old friend and even confessed that her original necklace was not real diamond nut fake, costing only five hundred francs (Maupassant 1). The importance of the use of twist ending in the two stories allows the readers of the two stories to re-evaluate the narratives and their characters as well. For example, one would have thought Mrs. Forester as a harsher strict women because of the fear in Loisel and her husban d. However, a reverse of this was revealed when she takes Loisel in two hands and tells her the truth behind her old necklaces. The type of ending is also important in allowing the readers to make discoveries in the two stories for example, only through the last portion of the story do the readers come to know the things that contributed to the somehow cold type of friendship and hidden grudges between Mrs. Ansley and Mrs. Slade. It reveals the romantic rivalry in their youth that made Mrs Slade to harbour feelings of hatred and jealousy against Mrs Ansley. By the words of Mrs. Ansley, Ã¢â¬ I had BarbaraÃ¢â¬ , it reveals Barbara was an illegitimate child she had with Delphin, Mrs. Slades husband. At the same time, it helps to reveal the truth behind the rich-looking nature of Mrs Forester. She was not that rich but she gained status by going for substitutes and no one knew of this. Endings have also been used in the two stories to surprise their audiences. This type of ending is called surprise ending. The use of surprise ending as revealed in the last lines by Mrs. Ansley in the story the Roman fever. No reader would imagine the daughters of the two women were not only friends. They were sisters. Mrs. Ansley surprises her friend and the audience of the story by speaking in a way that revealed that Mrs. SladeÃ¢â¬â¢s plan to disappoint her friend and make her separate from her fiancee had turned out to be her luck. The
Sunday, October 27, 2019
Pathophysiology Of Dvt Formation Health And Social Care Essay DVT is the result of a number of factors that include stasis of blood, endothelial injury and hypercoagulability of blood. PE is a major complication of DVT and occurs when a thrombus or blood clot detaches itself and is carried by the blood stream to the lungs. [J32] Proximal DVT carries a higher risk of PE than distal DVT. [J30, Havig] We focused on proximal DVT because it is much more reliably detected by ultrasonography and is considered to be clinically more important. [J53: 11,12, Ã §Ã¢â¬Å¾Ã ¡Ã ¨Ã Ã ½K list,Ã §Ã âÃ ¸Ã ¤Ã ¿Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã §Ã¢â¬ Ã ¨Ã ¥Ã¢â¬ ¦Ãâ Ã ¦Ã¢â¬ Ã ¹] DVT can occur in any veins. (near neck, etc.) However, it is not including in this literature review becauseÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ Upper limb DVT is being reported, particularly associated with central venous catheters. (K66, from J20:54) After a stroke, blood clots can form in the veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis, or DVT). These clots can break off and be carried in the blood stream to the heart and lungs (causing pulmonary embolism). This can be life threatening. [J30] Deep venous thrombosis may lead to pulmonary emboli, a frequent cause of avoidable deaths. [K52, from J53:1] Virchows triad The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying DVT include venous stasis and hypercoagulability linked to an increase in thrombin formation and platelet hyperactivity (Virchow 1858). [J30] The occurrence of one or more factors of Virchows triad (stasis of blood, endothelial injury and hypercoagulability of blood) in the venous system often leads to deep vein thrombosis (DVT) (Virchow 1858). [J18] DVT = PE = (Ã ¥Ã ¦Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¨Ã ¦Ã Ã ¦Ã¢â¬ °Ã ¾PEÃ §Ã ¡Ã¢â¬Å¾incidence mortality rate (acute + Rehab) J43 P263 have) Lower extremity DVT can be anatomically be divided into proximal DVT involving the popliteal vein and proximal veins or distal DVT involving the calf vein and distal veins. [J59] DVT in the paralyzed legs of patients with stroke was reported as early as 1810 by Ferriar and again by Lobstein in 1833. [J45] Pathophysiology of DVT formation According to the Medsurg, Venous return is aided by the calf muscle pump. When the legs are inactive or the pump is ineffective, blood pools by gravity in the veins. Thrombus development is a local process. It begins by platelet adherence to the endothelium. Several factors promote platelet aggregation, including thrombin, fibrin, activated factor X, and catecholamines. In addition, where the platelets adhere to collagen, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is released. ADP is also released from the damaged tissues and disrupted platelets. ADP produces platelet aggregation that results in a platelet plug. Deep vein thrombi vary from 1mm in diameter to long tubular masses filing main veins. Small thrombi are found commonly in the pocket of deep vein valves. As thrombi become larger in diameter and length, they obstruct the veins, the resulting inflammatory process can destroy the valves of the veins; thus; venous insufficiency and postphlebitic syndrome are initiated. Newly formed thrombi may become pulmonary emboli. Probably 24 to 48 hours after formation, thrombi undergo lysis or become organized and adhere to the vessel wall. Lysis diminishes the risk of embolization. Pulmonary emboli, most of which start as thrombi in the large deep veins of the leg, are an acute and potentially lethal complication of DVT. Venous thrombosis is the process of clot (thrombus) formation within veins. Although this can occur in any venous system, the predominant clinical events occur in the vessels of the leg, giving rise to deep vein thrombosis, or in the lungs, resulting in a pulmonary embolus (PE). [J56] In fact, about 90% of DVT are of the ascending type. The potential for embolism depends on the speed and the extent of the dynamic, ascending clot growing process. Almost all clinical PE originate from distal DVT. Only the remaining 10% are derived from clots without connection to the lower leg veins (e.g. isolated iliac vein thrombosis, transfascial great or small saphenous vein thrombosis, subclavian vein thrombosis, or catheter-related thrombosis). [J58] Damage to the epithelial cell lining of the blood vessel is one of the extrinsic factors triggering the clotting cascade. The damaged endothelium attempts to maintain vascular integrity by adhesion and aggregation of platelets. As the clotting cascade continues, the final step is the formation of thrombin, which leads to the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin and the formation of a fibrin clot. (Arcangelo Peterson, 2006) (from K84, J40: Arcangelo) Abnormal blood clots that adhere to the vessel wall are known as thrombi. These are composed of blood cells, platelets, and fibrin. Arterial thrombi are composed mainly of platelet aggregates and fibrin. Venous thrombi are composed of mainly red blood cells. The difference in composition is caused by the conditions in which the thrombus forms. In the artery, the blood flow is high in comparison with the low flow conditions in the vein. The thrombus may become large enough to interfere with blood flow within the vein or artery. (Mansen McCance, 2002) (from K85, J40: Mansen) If the thrombus detaches from the vessel wall, it becomes an embolus. This mobile clot travels thought the circulation until it lodges in a blood vessel that is smaller than the clot. Distal to this point, blood flow is blocked and tissues or organs are deprived of oxygen and nutrition. (Mansen McCance, 2002). The signs and symptoms associated with an embolus depend on the vein or artery where th clot becomes lodged. (from K85, J40: Mansen) In 1856, Virchow described the factors that predispose to venous thrombosis, including stasis, vascular damage, and hypercoagulability. These three factors are referred to as Virchows triad. Stasis of blood may occur because of immobility, age, obesity, or disease processes. Trauma (including surgery), intravenous (IV) cannulation, medications, and toxins are some of the many sources that may precipitate vascular damage. Hypercoagulability of the blood may be caused by various disease processes and medications. (Mansen McCance, 2002) (from K85, J40: Mansen) Why focus on DVT rather than PE and VTE? A high proportion of patients with DVT also have subclinical PE. [K15, from J45:14] Most of the PE results from DVT (please find literature to support) Since lower limb DVT is the major origin of PE, and the characteristic of prolong bed rest of stroke, this literature review will mainly focus on the DVT at lower limbs. Approximately two thirds of these are below-knee DVTs, in contrast to unselected (nonstroke) patients presenting with symptomatic DVT, in whom the majority are proximal. [J43] Most studies show that PE seems to be much more common in patients with proximal and symptomatic DVT. [K41, from J46:1] Clinical symptoms of DVT were developed by six patients (oedema or pain of the lower extremity, no cases of PE). (out of 28, =21.4%) (J48s result) Why stroke patient easy to have DVT The general stroke population is at risk for DVT because of the following factors. First, there is an alteration in blood flow due to weakness in the lower limb and a resulting hypercoagulable state related to changes in the blood. Second, vessel wall intimal injury occurs related to changes in blood and blood flow. Stroke patients may also have similar symptoms associated with DVT, such as swelling and Homans sign, that may be misinterpreted as being related to the stroke. [J50] Stroke patients are often bed-ridden, especially during the acute phase, because of paresis. [J50] Most of the stroke patients are elderly. (age > ), while aging is a significant factors of the occurrence of DVT. Patients with stroke are at particular risk for developing deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) because of limb paralysis, prolonged bed rest, and increased prothrombotic activity. [J45 (also code at J51)] Sioson et al.  reported 19 DVT events in the paretic limb, nine bilateral events and four contralateral in 32 patients prospectively followed. (K49 from J46:46) Why important to prevent WHO estimates that 15 million people have a stroke every year, and this number is rising. (K91, from J39:2) Venous thromboembolism is a common but preventable complication of acute ischaemic stroke, and is associated with increased mortality and long-term morbidity and substantial health-care costs for its management. (K92, from J39:6) Without venous thromboembolism prophylaxis, up to 75% of patients with hemiplegia after stroke develop deep vein thrombosis and 20% develop pulmonary embolism, (K93, from J39:8) which is fatal in 1-2% of patients with acute ischaemic stroke and causes up to 25% of early deaths after strokes. (K94, from J39:9) low molecular weight heparin and unfractionated heparin are therefore recommended in guidelines from expert consensus groups.10-14 (K95, from J39:10-14) The best treatment for VTE is prevention. [J34] Cause preventable death [J06] Deep venous thromboembolism (DVT) is an important health issue in the hospitalized patients that leads to increased length of stay, morbidity, and mortality. [J50] Early detection of DVT is important because of the risk of pulmonary embolism and its potentially fatal consequences. However, it is well known that clinical features of DVT and PE are notoriously nonspecific. [J09] Despite improvements in prevention (SPARCL 2006), little progress has been made in treating stroke with specific interventions once it has occurred. (K72, from J44) the occurrence of venous thromboembolism was about two-fold higher in patients with an NIHSS score of 14 or more than in those with a score less than 14 (in line with previous studies25) (K99, from J39:25 + J39self) Patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) or ischemic stroke are at high risk for development of venous thromboembolism (VTE). (K103, from J29:1) In comparison to patients with ischemic stroke, the risk for VTE is higher in the hemorrhagic stroke population. (K104, from J29:2) Without preventative measures, 53% and 16% of immobilized patients develop deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE), respectively, in this population. (K105, from J29:3) One study detected DVT in 40% of patients with ICH within 2 weeks and 1.9% of those patients had a PE.4 (K106, from J29:4) Development of VTE in the patient with ICH adds further detrimental complications to an already lethal disease with a 1-month case-fatality rate of 35% to 52%.5 (K107, from J29:5) DVT also prolongs the length of hospital stays, delays rehabilitation programs, and introduces a potential risk for PE. (K108, from J29:6) DVT prolongs hospitalization and increases healthcare costs. [J01] DVT is the pathophysiological precursor of pulmonary embolism (PE). However, half of the DVT cases were asymptomatic. [J01, K1 from J37:18, J37,J27]. Approximately one third of patients with symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) manifest pulmonary embolism (PE), whereas two thirds manifest deep vein thrombosis (DVT) alone. Moreover, death occurs in 6% of DVT cases and 12% of PE cases within 1 month of diagnosis. [J46, J27] Clinically apparent DVT was reported in 1.7% to 5.0% of patients with stroke. Subclinical DVT occurred in 28% to 73% of patients with stroke, usually in the paralyzed limb. [J45] The frequency of asymptomatic PE in patients with DVT to be 40%. [J50] Prevention of VTE is highly effective in lowering the morbidity and mortality rate of stroke patients since PE accounts for up to 25% of post-stroke early deaths. [J43] Bounds JV, Wiebers DO, Whisnant JP, Okazaki H: Mechanisms and timing of deaths from cerebral infarction. Stroke 1981, 12:474-477.The rate of PE is likely to be underestimated because they are not routinely screened for, and autopsies are rarely performed. Fifty percent of patients who die following an acute stroke showed evidence of PE on autopsy. [K68, from J13:7] The annual incidence of DVT in the general population is estimated to be about 1 per 1000 (8), however, it should be noted that much of the published data are derived from patients who present with symptoms at medical institutions. Diagnosis of DVT has traditionally been based on clinical presentation, however, evidence from postmortem studies indicates that a substantial proportion of VTE cases are asymptomatic. [K10 from J55] Clinically apparent DVT confirmed on investigation is less common but DVTs may not be recognised and may still cause important complications. Pulmonary embolism (PE) is an important cause of preventable death after stroke [K67, from J13:4]
Friday, October 25, 2019
Alzheimer's Disease: What are we Forgetting? Alzheimer's disease (pronounced Alz'-hi-merz) is a progressive, degenerative disease that affects the brain and results in impaired memory, thinking and behavior. It was first described by Dr. Alois Alzheimer in 1906 and has been diagnosed in millions of people to this day (1). This disease results, ultimately, in the destruction of the brain and brings new meaning and insights into just how much brain may equal behavior. Alzheimers is a degenerative disease that usually begins gradually, causing a person to have memory lapses in both basic knowledge and simple tasks (7). Alzheimers disease causes the formation of abnormal structures in the brain called plaques and tangles (particularly causatory are NFTs- neurofibrillary tangles) (5). As they accumulate in affected individuals, nerve cell connections are reduced. Some initial symptoms are loss of job skills, difficulty with familiar tasks, language problems, unawareness of time and place, lack of good judgment, problems with abstract thinking, misplacing things, and dramatic changes in personality (1). The speed with which the disease progresses can vary, but ultimately, as it destroys brain cells, causes confusion, personality and behavior changes and impaired judgment so severe that the patient may not seem to be the same person. Communication becomes difficult for the patient as they struggle to find words, finish thoughts or follow directions. So me experts classify the disease by stage (early, middle and late). But specific behaviors and how long they last vary greatly, even within each stage of the disease. Eventually, most people with Alzheimers become unable to care for themselves (1). The symptomology here is very dif... ...hem. The person is no longer "there", yet their body can be seen plainly. So who are we? Flesh? Brain? Something else that our brain and flesh create together? Probably. Those afflicted with Alzheimer's experience the ultimate brain shutdown. Their brains are destroyed by a currently unstoppable disease; connections are lost. And in the process of losing their minds, they lose themselves. WWW Sources 1)Alzheimer's Association http://www.alz.org/ 2)Alzheimers.com http://www.alzheimers.com/ 3)Alzheimer's Disease Review http://www.coa.uky.edu/ADReview/ 4)Alzheimer Research Forum http://ww.alzforum.org/ 5)Alzheimer starting point? http://www.uni-hohenheim.de/~rebhan/entorhinal.html 6)Alzheimer Web http://dsmallpc2.path.unimelb.edu.au/ad.html 7)The Health Connection http://thehealthconnection.com/Disease%20Center/diseases/alzheim.asp
Thursday, October 24, 2019
Abstract A good retirement plan should be one that would provide retirees with the most benefits. These benefits should ideally provide tax advantages. Tax savings can be realized in the short run or in the long run depending on the type of scheme selected. It should also provide a secure investment that offers attractive returns. This paper looks into the retirement programs highlighting the advantages of these schemes to different players. This paper opines that despite the few disadvantages of these schemes, They provide an great avenue through which employees can plan their futur. Definition These are a programs established by employer or employee or both aimed at providing the retirees with a source of income when they are no longer in employment. Retirement plans basically are set up as a form of savings plan to cater for the future i.e. by providing some form of income when a person has retired. Types of retirement plans There are several retirement plans available in the market today. The employees should therefore select a plan that meets their expectation and suits their needs. Below is a list and explanation of some of the available retirement plans. i) Individual Retirement Accounts plans It is one of the simplest retirement programs that can be set by an individual. It is also worthwhile to note that IRAs be established by employers. Therefore IRAs can be established with little employersÃ¢â¬â¢ involvement to those that they establish and contribute to the scheme. The retirement benefits depend on the contributions and subsequently the income earned by these funds. There are four IRA plans Payroll Deduction IRA- formed by the employee either under traditional or Roth IRA in conjunction with a financial institution. The financial institution (banks, insurance companies) then deducts the contributions towards the plan under the authority of the employee. Traditional IRA contributions are partly or wholly tax deductible and therefore present tax savings to the employee. The other advantage is that the earnings on the plan are not taxed unless distributed. The same applies to the contributions to the plan. Roth IRA deductions are not tax deductible and also distributions are not part of the income (Internal Revenue Service 2008) Salary Reduction Simplified Employee Pension Plan (SARSEP) Ã¢â¬â It is a simple plan that involves salary reduction agreement which enables the employers to contribute to the IRAs set by them and also to the employees IRAs. There contributions are subject to a limit. Simplified Employee Pension Plan (SEP)-Employers contribute towards the plan Savings Incentive Match Plan for Employees (SIMPLE IRA) Ã¢â¬â employers make contributions towards their own retirement plan and also that of the employees. The employees reduce their salaries with the employers making similar contributions. ii) IRC 401 (K) Plans. Can involve employees delaying their salaries and these money is taken to 401(k) plan supported by their employers. The deferred salary is not taxed unless distributed. The benefit of having a 401(k) plan is that one can have other plans as well The employee/employer contribution is subject to a limit with withdrawals being permitted but subject to taxes. iii) TRC 403(b)-Tax sheltered Annuity Plans This plan are operated by public schools and certain tax exempt organizations. This plan is same as 401(k) in the sense that contributions are in form of salary delays with the employers sponsoring the plan. The potential benefits of this plan are that the contributions and earnings on retirement are tax deferred with annuities being carried by the employee on retirement or change of employers (IRS: 2008) iv) IRC 457(b) Deferred Compensation Plans Established by state or local government or tax exempt organization under IRA (501(c). Employees or employers contribute to the plan through salary reductions up to a certain set limit under IRC 402(g) These plans can be eligible under IRC 457 (b) or illegible under IRC 457(f). Eligible plan allows tax deferral on contributions and earnings on the retirement funds (Ryterband &Alpem: 2005) v) Designated Roth Accounts in 401(k) or 403(b) plans 401(k) and 403(b) can be designated as Roth plans since 2006. These plans are allowed under Code section 402 A added by the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act 2001. Designated Roth contributions are included in the gross income and are also elective. A designated Roth account is where with contributions is made with separate accounting of contributions, gains and losses being maintained (IRS 2008) Designated Roth contributions are subject to limit with employee and employers contributing up to certain determinable limit. Advantages and Disadvantages of good retirement plan As discussed above, there are different types of retirement plans that employees and employers can chose from. The plan to be selected should provide the most benefits to both the employer and employee and most importantly suit the needs of both the employee and employers (Scotto, D., J et al: 2008) Therefore, in discussing the advantages and disadvantages of retirement plans, it important to approach it from the employees and employers point view. Advantages-Employees Tax saving-A good retirement plan should be able to provide the most tax savings and advantages. Tax advantages can be in the form of tax-exempt and tax deferrals. A good number of retirement plans offer these tax advantages and therefore employees and employers can select a plan that meets their needs (Maddock J, 2007) The tax savings can be realized in the short run or in the long run depending on the type of scheme selected. Many investment options and opportunities-The contributions (funding) to the retirement plan are invested in various investment options. A good retirement plan should therefore put the money in investments that offer attractive returns while at the same time safeguarding the investorÃ¢â¬â¢s money. Retirement plans are long term in nature and therefore the contributions should be invested in the long term also (Perlinger Financial Services: 2008) Provides a Ã¢â¬Ënest eggÃ¢â¬â¢-Retirement plans provide employees with an opportunity to slowly but constantly contribute towards their retirement. The benefit of this arrangement is that it does not strain the employees financially and thus they are able to make contribution which they are comfortable with. All these contributions are invested in stocks, bonds and other investment opportunities which earn interest and appreciate in value and therefore the retirement benefits will accumulate and become substantial upon retirement. Employer contributions-Contribution to the retirement benefits plan can be by an individual or by the company or both depending on the type of plan. A good retirement benefit plan should allow both contribution of employee and employer. The employer contributions are usually elective in nature. Contributions by both employer and employee ensure that the fund accumulates faster and thus on retirement the fund will be huge. Performance of the fund-The contributors to the retirement scheme should be able to monitor the performance of the fund. A good retirement benefits plan should provide regular updates on the performance of the fund so that any surplus or deficit can be appropriately dealt with. Advantages- Employer Employee retention-A good retirement plan can act as an incentive to the employees and also attract better employees. The company can retain its top employees by offering them a good retirement scheme and since it is for the long term, the company is able to retain them. The company is also able to attract employees who are better qualified in terms of experience and skills and thus the company will benefit (Business Owners Toolkit: 2008) Financial security of employees-Employees is able to perform optimally if they know that their financial future is guaranteed.Ã A retirement benefit plan that provides this perceived financial security is good Employee morale-Since most pension schemes are based on the salary earned by the employee, a good retirement plan therefore, serves to motivate and encourage all employees to work hard and hence earn more wages. Higher salaries subsequently means Ã¢â¬ËhandsomeÃ¢â¬â¢ retirement package and this enhances staff morale. Tax savings-The contributions to the retirement scheme in most plans is tax allowable and this provides the company with the most tax efficient way of rewarding its employees. The contributions are deducted when calculating the taxable income. Reduced recruitment costs-As seen above, a good retirement plan helps the company retain most of its employees and therefore the costs associated with recruitment and replacing the employees who left the company is minimized (Perlinger Financial Services:2008) Disadvantages of retirement plans Despite all the numerous advantages of setting up a retirement plan, there are several disadvantages associated with it. Some of these are discussed below. Some of the retirement plans are time consuming, expensive and complex to set up. The result of this is that the company incurs extra expenses and thereby squeezing the profit margins. The complexities in establishing the plan will also present more costs apart from being time consuming (Business Owners Toolkit: 2008) The operations of the retirement plan needs professional expertise e.g. that of actuaries and accountant. These professionals offer their services at a fee which is usually expensive. The administrative costs of running a retirement plan may pose a challenge to the company in terms of extra costs. Early retirement by the employee could reduce the amount received. This in essence means that the employee has to work his full employment term in order to receive all his retirement benefits. This could mean being trapped in employment even if one is not comfortable. Joining a retirement plan late on in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s employment i.e. when there are a few years till retirement may not accumulate a large amount enough to sustain the retiree. Therefore the retirement plan will not improve the financial security of the employee (Scotto, D., J et al: 2008) In some of the retirement plans, the contributor has no role in deciding where to invest the fundÃ¢â¬â¢s money. This means that the money could be invested in assets that are not in line with oneÃ¢â¬â¢s investment strategies. This essentially means that the contributor has no control of his money. Employees are responsible for ensuring that they have enough savings for their retirement in some of the plans. This means that the employee is the one in charge of all the investment assets and therefore bears the responsibility of any losses incurred by these investments. Reference: Maddock, J (2007) Advantages of Offering a Pension Plan to Your Employees: Retrieved On 29/1/2009 Perlinger Financial Services Ltd (2008) Pension Plans: Retrieved on 29/1/2008 Internal Revenue Service (2008) Types of Retirement Plans: Retrieved On 29/1/2008 Business Owners Toolkit (2008) Pros and Cons of Retirement Plans: Retrieved On 29/1/2008 From http://www.toolkit.com/small_business_guide/sbg.aspx?nid=P05_4640 Scotto, D., J.Ã Maglio, V., T. & Maglio, M. (2008) Choosing a retirement plan that meets the needs of employees and employer: Retrieved on 29/1/2008 from Retrieved On From http://view.fdu.edu/default.aspx?id=2333 Chang RuthenBerg and Long Pc (2003) Types of Retirement Plans retrieved on 29/1/2008 fromÃ Ã http://www.seethebenefits.com/CRLframeset800x600.asp?targetPage=http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:AO6rPS-WpS4J:www.seethebenefits.com/content/CWHY/typesretireplans.htm%20types%20of%20retirement%20plans Ryterand, D., J. & L. Alpem, R., L. (2005). The Hand Book of Employee Benefits: Design Funding and Administration, section 457, Deferred compensation plans 6th Edition (NY) Mc Graw-Hill Professional. Ã Ã Ã