Saturday, August 31, 2019

TV Dating Show

TV Dating Show – † If you are the one† Oh, My God! There are 24 beautiful and charming young female contestants standing on a stage, each atop a podium with a light panel in front. Stand on the other side of the stage is a young male contestant who looks a little bit nervous because he is trying to impress the 24 ladies to go on a date with him. Wait, what is going on? Uh†¦ , let me tell you that is a real scene from the most popular TV dating show in China, â€Å"If You are the one. This dating show was created for the career oriented men and women between the ages of 20 to 40 a platform to meet their soul ate. It was produced by Jungian Satellite Television. Unlike the traditional way of making friends, this show reflects the men and women's idea of finding love and marriage in today's world. In the show, the 24 female contestants have 4 chances to understand the male constant through his story, career, love life and comments from friends to decide if the m ale contestant is the one whom they have been waiting for by keeping the light panel on after all 4 segments.Because of its novelty, this show attracted many young people and many parents would encourage their children to audition for the show. And Just in a short time, â€Å"Are you the one† has become a popular topic at dinner table. Everyone In China knows this show, even a 5-year old child. To some extent, in â€Å"If You are the one,† the honest and daring conversations on love and personal values between male and female contestants have aroused wide public concern. Sometimes, you may get scared hearing about some surprising Ideas.For Instance, In 2011, a female contestant named Ma Nun, expressed her love view on the show by saying â€Å"I'd rather cry In a BMW than smile on a bicycle. † Immediately after she saying that, she had become an Internet sensation and all most every audience got shocked. Many people criticized her for being selfish, they called h er â€Å"Ammonite,† which means a person only loves money. However, at the same time, People who supported Ma Nun, applauded for her honesty, because not everyone can tell what they actually thing In such a big show.At that time, every Chinese hold different opinions attitudes toward this Issue. After one year, this event ended as a dating shows sensationalists. In fact, I think â€Å"If You are the one† Is not more than a dating show, It Is Like a multi-delusional mirror that reflects today's social values ND also created a buzz about people's morality. Through this dating show, we can see ourselves as one of the contestants on the show. As Earnest Hemingway said â€Å"l know only that what Is moral Is what you feel good after and what Is Immoral Is what you feel bad after. TV Dating Show By Cindy going on? Uh†¦ , let me tell you that is a real scene from the most popular TV dating popular topic at dinner table. Everyone in China knows this show, even a 5-year o ld public concern. Sometimes, you may get scared hearing about some surprising ideas. For instance, In 2011, a female contestant named Ma Nun, expressed her love view on he show by saying â€Å"I'd rather cry in a BMW than smile on a bicycle. Immediately after she saying that, she had become an internet sensation and all most every can tell what they actually thing in such a big show. At that time, every Chinese hold different opinions attitudes toward this issue. After one year, this event ended as a dating shows sensationalistic.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Experiencing the Schizophrenia of Christianity Essay

â€Å"The religion of the future will be a cosmic religion,† asserts Albert Einstein. â€Å"It should transcend a personal god and avoid dogmas and theology. Covering both the natural and the spiritual, it should be based on a religious sense arising from the experience of all things, natural and spiritual and a meaningful unity. Buddhism answers this description. If there is any religion that would cope with modern scientific needs, it would be Buddhism. † While other physicists and mathematicians love Lao Tzu’s Taoism, most Chinese embrace both and add Confucianism. For thousands of years, these have been the three philosophies of China. While Judaism, Islam and Christianity also made its way to China, these religions did not bear as much fruit because of their schizophrenic nature. Unfortunately, many in the West still suffer from â€Å"split minds† due to Christian indoctrination. There are many factual stories in the news today about the Christian crisis, but fiction writers also have their own adaptations or interpretations of these stories. For instance, in the short story Sixty-five Million Years, Father Hennessey portrays the schizophrenia of Christian clergymen and Christianity in general. Father Hennessey is the main character or protagonist of the story. He â€Å"found himself lured into a kind of salacious appetite for some of the things he was privy to; there were sins his parishioners confessed that seemed nearly attractive to him, not as temptations, but as something close to entertainment, amusement. † He became obsessed with the sexual confessions of Mr. Graham, â€Å"the most popular teacher in the local high school, who taught math along with science. † Graham is also â€Å"kindly, softhearted, resourceful, passionate about his work, a dedicated and devoted educator. † But he is childless with his wife of 25 years, a woman who is â€Å"several years older† than him. After a 15-year old girl, a remedial math student, came to see him regularly, he started to experience sleepless nights with â€Å"sexual tension. † He keeps seeing himself â€Å"reach for her. † She waits for him â€Å"to tell her the answer to a problem,† but he â€Å"can’t do it because† he has â€Å"to use all† his â€Å"mental resources to keep from grabbing her and trying to kiss her and begging her to let† him â€Å"have her. † Father Hennessey finds Graham’s mental anguish â€Å"entertaining,† and Hennessey, in the beginning, always looks forward to Confessionals with Graham. He â€Å"was guiltily aware that this was because of the strange absorption that had taken hold of him concerning the details of the story. † There came a point that it preoccupied his mind so much that he couldn’t administer mass properly anymore. He also couldn’t listen attentively to other confessions since Graham’s story always distracted his mind. There is also a 15-year old boy who regularly confesses to Hennessey. He has â€Å"close-cut blond hair† with a â€Å"crooked nose† and â€Å"a round head. † He also suffers from Rheumatoid Arthritis, spending much time in bed, reading books, as a result of his condition. His condition also resulted in fingers that â€Å"were knotted and curved slightly with the arthritis,† but they were â€Å"beautiful†¦in their strange variance from the hands one expected a fifteen-year-old boy to have. † Hennessey finds out much later that he is the twin brother of Graham’s obsession. Their mother is mentally ill and has been confined in the hospital since their father left them. The twin siblings have been living by themselves at home without any supervision. The young boy’s mentally-ill mother keeps asking the boy numerous doubting questions about God, so he goes to Father Hennessey for the answers. But he fails to answer them. â€Å"Father,† the boy asks during a confessional with Hennessey, â€Å"the dinosaurs lived here for millions of years. We’ve only been here for a little fraction of a second in terms of evolution. What was God thinking? † The boy explains that the Bible is ignorant of dinosaurs. â€Å"Saint Peter didn’t know about the dinosaurs, Father,† he says. But Hennessey doesn’t take him too seriously. He feels that â€Å"the boy might be less than sincere, and that this was all at his expense. † But the young boy is persistent. He visits Hennessey regularly at his confession booth; Hennessey not knowing that he is the twin-brother of Graham’s obsession. The boy even calls up Hennessey’s housekeeper to ask about the priest’s character or behavior, which the boy seriously doubts. Unfortunately, Father Hennessey fails to help Graham and the young boy. Instead of healing the mental illness or perversion of Graham, he makes it worse. Instead of answering the questions of the boy correctly, he gives a stock answer—faith. â€Å"There is no perfect answer, son,† Hennessey says, â€Å"except faith. † He considers them as forms of entertainment like watching interactive television. Hence, he makes both of their lives worse. Graham becomes perverted with his student, committing adultery with her multiple times, even on campus, where they are caught in the gymnasium equipment cabinet, and he is terminated from work. He also ends up in jail for contributing to juvenile delinquency and loses his career. The young boy couldn’t help his mother who is mentally ill, and in turn, the mother couldn’t help her daughter, who ends up with a sexual relationship with Graham. Father Hennessey had internal conflicts that split his mind or made him somewhat schizophrenic. Consequently, he also failed himself. One night, he was very troubled, and â€Å"What disturbed him most that night was that he had gone through everything in these last few weeks only in terms of himself. † He also â€Å"began to wonder if he were not becoming unhinged. † These problems are actually consequences or reflections of much more serious problems in the Catholic Church. Sometimes, it isn’t Graham or the young boy who develop such problems; it is the priest himself who develops sexual relationships with parishioners. Sometimes they rape them or molest them, as the thousands of cases broadcasted in recent television news reports. That’s why many Americans are now turning to Asian philosophies such as Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism which are in harmony with science and psychology, unlike Christianity which is in conflict with science. â€Å"For a parallel to the lesson of atomic theory,† asserts Niels Bohr, a Nobel-prize physicist acclaimed for the Bohr model of the atom and his contributions to Quantum Mechanics, â€Å"†¦(we should study) those kinds of epistemological problems with which already thinkers like the Buddha and Lao Tzu have been confronted, when trying to harmonize our position as spectators and actors in the great drama of existence. † This is the answer that both the boy and Graham were seeking from Father Hennessey. The elementary questions that the boy asked can all be answered by the three philosophies of China easily. The boy wanted to reconcile science with religion. He needed answers to scientific questions that contradicted the Bible or showed its ignorance. Graham would have had a clear answer from a Buddhist too. Although he visited Hennessey to confess his sexual perversions, he was really seeking a solution to his illness or his obsessive compulsions. He wanted to heal it or get rid of it, along with the suffering that he was experiencing. Buddha’s First Noble Truth asserts that life is dukkha—impermanent, uncomfortable, sometimes even painful and deadly, like riding a wooden cart with uneven wheels or hearing a screeching uneven potter’s wheel turn. Lao Tzu explains that the bumpy cycles of life, moving up and down, are the result of natural forces in the universe, which are now understood partly by physicists as gravity, space and time. It creates polarities in everything—male-female, good-bad, day-night, up-down, mania-depression, life-death, white-black, desire-aversion, happiness-sadness, economic boom-busts and so forth—with infinite degrees in magnitude, along with multiple combinations in proportions. The Chinese call this Yang and Yin, respectively. The Second Noble Truth then asserts that dukkha or the impermanent cycle of suffering is caused by the physical existence of Yin and Yang, such as Graham’s aversion and desire, as stated in Rodney St. Michael’s book Sync My World. Consequently, the Third Noble Truth then says that to manage dukkha, one must â€Å"extinguish† the polarities of Yin and Yang, or in Graham’s case, aversion and desire. Finally, the Fourth Noble Truth asserts that to â€Å"extinguish† these polarities, one must follow the Middle Way or the Eightfold Noble Path. To make a long story short, one of the eight guidelines in this path is meditation. Desire and aversion, for example, are caused by imbalanced hormones and neurotransmitters. By practicing breath meditation daily, Graham could biologically alter his brain chemistry to neutralize the imbalance in his system. There are also many other suggestions that a Buddhist could give to Graham, such as what to think when desires start burning him. Buddhists would also explain to him the concept of karma, or the principle of cause and effect, which explains all the possible consequences of ignoring his problem. As for the young teenager, Lao Tzu’s Tao Te Ching, explains that the â€Å"force,† acting as God or nature, creates everything in polarities such that some are monstrous dinosaurs and some are cute lambs. Some are carnivores and some are herbivores. Everything lives and dies and goes around in a cycle. People should never expect anything to last, whether it be marriage (which normally only lasts 10 years), jobs, prosperity, happiness or anything good. Incorrect expectations cause mental anguish, but managed expectations produce relative stability. One must realize also that the darkest period of night is the time just before sunrise, so any bad situation will eventually turn good, even if death itself has to trigger it. In the end, while Hennessey failed, his experience changed him: â€Å"He stood in the shadow of the church, and looked up. It was a building; he had a moment of being frightfully aware of it as mere stone, the work of human hands, stone and brick and mortar and wood. † He became aware or enlightened of the fact that the Roman Catholic Church is mortal. It is not the divine house of God. He is not a divine worker. There is nothing supernatural in what he is doing. He’s just human. The doubt of the boy made him doubt himself and the Church. But now he has the chance to change everything. And slowly but surely, America is also realizing that they now have a chance to do the same. Works Cited Bausch, Richard, â€Å"Sixty-five Million Years. † NarrativeMagazine. com. St. Michael, Rodney. (Including citations from Einstein and Bohr). Sync My World: Thief’s Honor GA SK. Raleigh: Lulu, 2009.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

How Important is Discipline in Society? Essay

Among those who work in difficult or dangerous jobs, for example in coal mines, there is often a discipline that comes not from being subject to the will of any person, however rational and well-intentioned, but from the work itself. If it is to be done successfully and with the minimum danger and discomfort to all those engaged in it, certain procedures must be followed and safeguards observed. Since the workers can see that the nature of the work demands this, there is correspondingly less need for discipline to be imposed on them by some other agency. This is an ideal situation, as far as discipline is concerned: where the discipline is inherent in the work or activity, and where rules and procedures are followed because they are perceived as appropriate if the work is to be done. In the same kind of way it does happen, and fortunately not all that rarely, that a society appears collectively to embrace the idea that behaving within the legal confines is in the public’s interest, and that if they are to be law-abiding, then various routines, such as remaining content with earning one’s own keep and not committing fraud, have to be kept to. How can â€Å"discipline† be defined? Some would reserve the word for the following of rules because the rules are seen appropriate to the task in hand, and would apply the adjective â€Å"disciplined† to the abovementioned society but not to another one which has been brought to order by some external force such as the government’s threats of punishment. Others take a more holistic view of discipline in which it is perfectly proper to speak of one person or group of persons being â€Å"disciplined† by another’s imposition of authority. It would be pointless to stipulate that the word should be used in one way or another. However, I wish to stress that whatever words we use, there are clearly differences among the following three cases: one, where we follow rules willingly because we perceive them as right or appropriate; two, where we follow them under manipulative coercion, such as when we are persuaded that there is no alternative to the rules; and three, where we follow them under what may be called punitive coercion, being threatened with punishment or in general some unpleasant consequences if we do not. In a narrow view of things, many of mankind’s achievements in education,  economics, culture, athletics and science can be attributed to the persistence of disciplined, and often self-motivated, individuals. Sterling examples would include Archimedes, the great mathematician, who before being killed by a Roman soldier was drawing symbols in sand; Marie Curie who dedicated her widowed years in continuing research in radioactivity and eventually died of a radiation-triggered illness; and Siddhartha Gautama who exercised strict discipline over himself to mediate under the pipal tree and eventually achieved enlightenment. Even in Singapore, we see a most disciplined mountaineer in Mr. Khoo Swee Chiow who genuinely believes in his cause. However, discipline in the populace would assume greater significance if we consider its polar opposite: civil disobedience, or the taking of a token action in defiance of the law for the purpose of changing the law. Those who act in a civilly disobedient manner have no respect for law (whereas discipline is the manifestation of a respect for law). It is impossible to have a law that authorises individuals to violate it. Respect for law is essential for any system to function. An effective system of law is possible only when appeals cannot be made to principles outside the legal system. Civil disobedients determine for themselves what laws to obey and what laws to violate. Without law, there will only be chaos as each individual and group decides unilaterally what is right. The victims in such a lawless society will probably be many of the very same people who argue so adamantly for the right of civil disobedience, namely, the advocates of civil rights, social justice, and peace. If one group can decide for itself which laws to obey, so too will other groups. A system of law protects all groups in society. Without it, anarchy prevails, discussion ceases and violence begins. Therefore, discipline is a form of civilly responsible behaviour which helps maintain social order and contributes to the preservation, if not advancement, of collective interests of society at large. Having said that, a society whose members are too self-disciplined to ever become civilly disobedient is likely to be a stagnant one. On the other hand, civil disobedience may be good in the sense that a tolerance of it strengthens democracy. For a system to be democratic, it must have broad  support among diverse elements of society. The processes of a representative democracy (with a system of representative government based on free elections and a system of limitations on state activity) work slowly, and often groups become disenchanted with the slow responsiveness of government. Groups subjected to discrimination or injustice cannot be expected to rely exclusively on constitutional processes, while remedies take years to be instituted. Faced with the problems deeply felt by a group, its leaders must have an alternative to dissent or resistance. In the 1960s, for example, black people in America felt that the processes of change, particularly social and economic change, were moving too slowly to produce tangible benefits. Most of them rejected extremist solutions as unsuitable for democracy but saw in civil disobedience a remedy that would allow them to accept the legitimacy of the system. Hence Martin Luther King’s policy of direct action – the taking of non-violent measures like boycotts and sit-ins – which was based on the necessity of violating unjust laws. Here, acts of civil disobedience were justified because racial segregation by law is morally reprehensible. Another of the twentieth century’s great proponents of civil disobedience was Mohandas K. Gandhi, the Indian leader. His policy of satyagraha (literally â€Å"firmness in the truth†) was often equated with passive resistance. He urged his partisans to take peaceful acts, such as marches and boycotts to achieve the independence of India from British colonial rule. Gandhi became famous for his hunger strikes and for other acts of non-violence. One of his tactics was to have his followers lie down on railroad tracks, thus preventing trains from moving. By taking such peaceful acts of civil disobedience, Gandhi contributed to the movement – both in India and in Great Britain – for the independence of his country. Although not sanctified by law, civil disobedients can strengthen democratic institutions because they channel their energies in directions that a broader segment would ultimately accept – the abolition of slavery and segregation laws, the expression of civil rights, the establishment of nation independence, and the promotion of peace. They bring about positive  social changes. Returning to the three cases I highlighted in the second paragraph, it seems clear enough that the first case, whether or not we call it â€Å"discipline†, is what any government would prefer to find in its people. After all, it guarantees smooth implementation of even the most unpopular laws and in extreme cases, enables social engineering to be carried out. The question is what we are to do when this ideal breaks down or has no chance to develop. What course of action can governments take to bring about the order necessary for the smooth running of society, and indeed for civilised relationsh ips in general, to take place? More than often, governments ensure discipline in the people by instituting a legal system. Undoubtedly, a legal system is a specialised system of rules, distinct from moral rules, which at the least provides a framework in which individual behaviour can be in some sense regulated and an element in certainty guaranteed, and which at the very most may provide a comprehensive framework of regulations covering nearly all aspects of the individual’s life. To discuss the importance of discipline, or rather disciplinary action, in society, we would need to validate the existence of legal systems. It is true that some political philosophers have toyed with the idea of the possibility of social order without law: indeed, the first major work on this subject, Plato’s Republic, describes a lawless utopia in which the free play of the intelligence of the philosopher-kings is allowed to proceed untrammelled by legal restraints. Also, Karl Marx’s future classless society would be free from the restraints of civil and criminal law because those very factors that give rise to the need for law – the institution of money, the social division of labour and the system of private property – would have been removed. What unites all the differing â€Å"lawless† utopias is the requirement that these desirable states of affairs can only be brought about by a fundamental change in human nature. Marx, for instance, stresses that the abolition of the social division of labour associated with the bourgeois mode of production would entail a change in human nature. Yet the most elementary of human nature would make these interpretations fantastically optimistic because it seems to indicate the necessity for some rules, many of which are bound to be backed by organised sanctions (these will come to  be known as â€Å"laws†). Other political theorists, perhaps with a less elevated view of human potential, have argued that individuals have found the best form of protection in the existence of general rules of conduct binding on all. It is ironic that in his Laws, a much later work, Plato describes a society under the rule of law. Many commentators have understood this striking change in viewpoint as a capitulation to hard facts. If so, the facts may be no more compelling than that a wise ruler can be effective only through the promulgation of general regulations. No ruler of a large society could make every critical decision and transmit it rapidly through the populace. The best one can do is to define general limits within which individual citizens make their own decisions. Likewise, in practice, Communist regimes have maintained some sort of court system. Indeed, as the dream of a stateless, coercionless society faded, the notion of â€Å"legality† crept back into Soviet jurisprudence. Constitution law was revived and made consistent with socialism; and even some Western legal concepts and practices which would previously have been denounced as bourgeois reappeared in the later development of the Soviet legal system. Thus there was a legal order in the Soviet system. From these illustrations, it becomes more difficult to conceive of a society in which the people are not disciplined by laws. A system of law provides three qualities for social life: stability, uniformity and cooperation. The type of social stability that law provides is reliability of expectation. When established laws exist, citizens know what they can expect from their fellow citizens and government officials. Criminal law is a system of rules that provides means for the apprehension of individuals who break the law and that circumscribe the procedures that the government must follow in arrest and seizure. Civil law defines the procedures required for legal status with respect to property, contracts, marriages and many other relations among individuals and institutions. To a great extent, the more persuasive is law throughout a society, and the more are social relations regulated by it, the more stable is the society and the more reliable are expectations of members of the society as to how others will act if they respect the law. The greatest virtue of law is that it  achieves an explicitness frequently absent from other regions of social life, say custom, preventing arbitrariness and caprice and making clear what is demanded of individuals. Next, the fundamental and persuasive feature of law is its promulgation of a general rule binding equally on everyone who fits the conditions prescribed. The principle that everyone is equal before the law is inherent in all laws, not just in a democracy. Uniformity is important for stability, cooperation and fairness. It expresses the heart of the principle of equality before the law. A stable society requires uniform procedures for regulating activities and for rectifying imbalances. Citizens must be informed by formal legislation that activities are prescribed and proscribed. Where cooperation throughout large groups and regions is pursued, stable and reliable expectations are required. Vehicle drivers cooperate at road junctions through the laws that regulate left of way. Finally, the urge towards fairness shared by everyone, even those who reject some laws, requires implementation in laws if it is to be effective. Thirdly, a society can be beneficial to its members only where it achieves cooperation among them. If all activities were wholly individual within a society, the society would exact the usual price for social life from its members without compensating benefits. Law provides a necessary organisational and structural force in cooperative ventures. Exchange and possession of property could not be as smooth as they are in many countries without rules regulating the flow of money, procedures for the exchange of property and so forth. The most obvious characteristic of laws is that they are enforced, involving the police, courts of laws, punishments and penal institutions. I accept that the general justifying aim punishment is to secure greater obedience to laws and rules by deterring offenders, both potential repeat offenders and those who so far have not offended but might if not deterred. If this seems too obvious a statement to be worth making, I do so at this point because different opinions have been offered, such as that the general purpose of punishment is to reform offenders, or to visit retribution on them or to  reveal the moral order. Judicial punishment is incurred for an offence against laws or rules, which can be inspected in statute books. The connection is that when a person can know in advance, because rules have been published, what he is liable to be punished for, it is possible for him to exercise the choice and live in the security that are supposed to be the advantages of order being maintained through punishment rather than manipulation or sophisticated bullying. Thus punishment is supposed to have the merit of respecting the individual’s responsibility, of giving him the choice of whether to offend and to pay the price or observe the rule and preserve his freedom, so conferring the benefit that he is in charge, in this respect at least, of his own life and destiny. To insist that it is precisely where matters of importance are concerned that people must be given significant responsibility may seem strange in the context of punishment, for what we want to do is to prevent crimes and offences, not leave people with the choice of whether to commit them or not. Punishments are not simply a scheme of fines and restrictions designed to put a price on certain forms of conducts; it would be far better if the acts proscribed by penal statutes were never done. The point of punishment is that while it aims to prevent offences, it does this in a way that leaves room for other principles and goods that we value, which a more simple-minded, draconian system of preventing offences would not. More is at stake than the maintenance of laws at their most efficacious level: if that were all we wanted, we would behave very differently. We might, for example, take measures to isolate or even exterminate those sections or age groups of the population statistically most likely to commit crimes and would no doubt institute curfews. Yet we have reservations about measures such as these because as well as freedom from crimes, we value other things like freedom of speech, of movement and association. In this light, punishment as a means of discipline is important in society. At the same time, this importance can be diminished in the view of the adverse effects of law and punishment. The value of law is so great and the reverence for law becomes so overpowering that it may become self-stultifying and destructive. Laws can make a society become too stable  and inflexible, incapable of adapting to new conditions. The laws of a society may represent social relations long out of date, promoting oppression and invasion of privacy. Law may impose too great a uniformity upon society, stifling creativity, originality, human variation and cultural heterogeneity. When the faults of law intrude, people become desperate. When injustices prevail within the ruling system of injustice, when society becomes too uniform, inflexible and oppressive, law can be viewed as an intractable evil. When the prevailing legal system is held up as worthy because it is the law, no matter how oppressive and unjust, people lose their respect for law without knowing any alternative. The most pernicious danger is that respect for law may be imposed and not earned, and may be assumed even when the law is unjust. Then we have the hidden oppression of Kafka’s â€Å"The Trial†, in which a man suffers under a system of Law that accuses and trials him but never explains why. That system should not merit such respect and must instead be condemned. In conclusion, I view discipline exercised by and over the populace as important in society; however, it should co-exist with an active civil voice. Can discipline be maintained by means other than law and punishment? Liberal-rationalists distinguish rule-governed behaviour from habitual behaviour on the premise that the former involves â€Å"internalisation†. A rule is internalised when it is understood by the participants in a social practice as indicating a right and wrong way of doing things. Unlike the carefully trained animal in the zoo who follows the keeper’s instructions automatically, individuals who are guided by rules regard them as expressing meaningful standards of behaviour. Furthermore, rules entail the idea of choice for, unlike well-trained animals, humans may disobey rules. Sanctions are needed to cope with the minority of rule-breakers but this does not mean that sanctions can replace internalisation as the guarantor of regularised behaviour. This concept of â€Å"internalisation† is reminiscent of Confucius’ teachings: â€Å"Guide them by the edicts, keep them in line with punishments, and the  common people will stay out of trouble but will have no sense of shame. Guide them by virtue, keep them in line with the rites, and they will, besides having a sense of shame, reform themselves.†

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

The entrepreneurship in a globalising world Essay

The entrepreneurship in a globalising world - Essay Example This paper discusses the impact of entrepreneurship in a globalized world and compares the role of small and large entrepreneurial enterprises. Under the research project titled Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM), the London Business School together with the Babson College has analyzed the activity of entrepreneurship in above 40 countries that include several developed and developing societies. According to the GEM estimates, about 9 per cent of the total adult population is trying to establish a new venture at every point in time (Gatewood and Boko, 2009, p. 124). The GEM studies have found a strong link between the level of GDP of a country and the entrepreneurial activity going on in it. GEM estimates note that countries that have low GDP levels generally have significantly higher levels of early-stage entrepreneurial activity and a high number of small enterprises whereas in the high income countries, there is a relatively low level of early-stage entrepreneurial activity. â€Å"Countries with highest levels of GDP show increasing early-stage entrepreneurial activity, especially opportunity driven activities, as mo re individuals have the resources to go into business for themselves in an economic environment that allows for the exploitation of opportunities† (Gatewood and Boko, 2009, p. 125). The huge impact of globalization on entrepreneurship can be estimated from the fact that in certain GEM countries, at least 40 per cent of the total number of early-stage entrepreneurs expected at least 25 per cent of their consumers to belong to foreign markets (Gatewood and Boko, 2009, p. 125). The impact of entrepreneurship on globalization can be fairly understood from the effect of the European economic crisis on entrepreneurship in the US. The worst consequences of the European financial crisis are almost over as the leaders in different European countries have started to

Answer 3 questions after reading the article Assignment

Answer 3 questions after reading the article - Assignment Example That is the reason why the writer goes into details by explaining how the product exactly works. The information is meant to guarantee the audience of high quality medical standards of the product and the company that produces it. Additionally, the writer intends to show the efficiency of the product to the audience and offer assurance. The manner in which the information is simplified and structured goes to show that it is meant for an audience that suffers or has a history of heart conditions. It is notable that each paragraph presents an idea of its own. Each paragraph is designed to address another aspect of the overall message. This implies that the ideas are continuous and complement ones found in previous paragraphs. This brings about a comprehensive, coherent and a logical flowing report. It is important for each paragraph to be designed that way as it improves readability and understanding of the

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Land law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Land law - Essay Example Over a period of time she gained ascendancy over him. Her action against him was set aside as she failed to disprove this presumption (Re Craig , 1971). In Dunbar Bank plc v. Nadeem, the bank provided a mortgage loan to the couple in their joint names. In the trial court it was held that there had been undue influence brought to bear on the wife, as she had not made any contribution to the purchase, but all the same she was being held jointly liable with her husband. The appellate court set aside this judgment and ruled that she had not suffered any disadvantage and as she had failed to establish undue influence (Dunbar Bank plc v. Nadeem , 1998 ). The courts of equity, in their role of a court of conscience, initiated undue influence as a basis for the obtention of relief. To this end the courts endeavour to determine the underlying reason for entering into a transaction. In all cases, where the cause proves to be objectionable, the transaction will be rescinded. From the perspective of equity, undue influence occurs in the following cases. If there are threats or other overtly improper or intimidating acts and if the relationship between the parties accords to one of them a superior position, which is exploited by that party to the detriment of the other party. In O’Brien, the House of Lords specified the measures to be adopted by a bank, in order to avoid the ill effect of a husband’s undue influence, while granting loans to a couple. The outcome of this decision was that a contract could become unenforceable if one of the parties to the contract had done so as a consequence of a third party’s transgression (Barclays Bank v. OBrien, 1993). In Etridge it was held that it was the duty of the bank to take all such reasonable steps as would ensure that the wife should be properly apprised of the consequences of the transaction that she was about to enter into. To this end an

Monday, August 26, 2019

LGBTQ and public schools Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

LGBTQ and public schools - Essay Example According to the Code of Ethics of National Association of Social Workers (2008), a social worker ought to distinguish him or herself by exhibiting high code of conduct in terms of respect, discrimination, and social and political action. Through these codes, the social worker is seen as a representative of his or her client by ensuring social justice and enhancing social change with and on behalf of their clients (Schmidt, 2005). These definitions about social work and the social worker speaks for its self as to what should be the role of the social worker in the given scenario and case. It can therefore be emphasized that the transgender student and the school environment constitute a society (Looney, 2002. p. 12). The role and functioning of social work, therefore, come into the scene as much as the responsibility of the social worker. This is a responsibility that the social worker must play and play effectively to ensure that the transgender student is accommodated well in the school and that she is put in a position to adequately use personal abilities, which are her skills and knowledge, in a well harnessed manner to achieve her goals in life. Given the fact that the transgender student is going to be the first of that kind in the school and the fact that students and other stakeholders in the school have not had any previous experience of accommodating such transgender students and integrating with them, the best way to offer support to assist the successful transition and integration of the student into the school is to use a psychological approach (Transitional Roadmap, 2012). Meanwhile, it has been said also that the physical aspects of transitional gender are easier to deal with as against the psychological, as the physical aspects are easily seen and can thus be solved easily (Henderson, 2003, p. 140). What this means is that if the psychological component of the present situation is handled, more than half of the problem will be solved. In

Sunday, August 25, 2019

European Court of Justices judgment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

European Court of Justices judgment - Essay Example The complainants presented the issue before the Belgian Constitutional Court in an effort to inspire the annulment of the Belgian law that transposed the directive. It is from this perspective that the Belgian Constitutional Court asked the Court of Justice for appropriate assessment on the validity of the derogation with respect to higher-ranking legal rules, and with reference to the principle of equality of genders enshrined in European Union law (Europe Log, 2011). The directive provided that the Member States had the authority to permit exemptions from the rule of unisex premiums and benefits for as long as they could prove that underlying actuarial and statistical data were reliable, available to the public and regularly updated. Under Belgian insurance law, the insurance contract must have an element of uncertainty. An insurance contract under Article 1A of the Insurance Contract Law, 1992 states:A contract according to which, in return for the payment of a fixed or variable p remium, a party, the insurer, commits itself towards another party, the policyholder, to provide the benefit stipulated in the contract in case an uncertain even emerges, that depending on the circumstances, either the insured or the beneficiary does not wish to emerge.Insurance disputes are brought before any court although the domicile of the policyholder has jurisdiction. Regulation of the Belgian insurance sector is also under Europe's highest court, the ECJ, which issues directives to member countries.

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Post Deregulation Act of 1978 Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Post Deregulation Act of 1978 - Term Paper Example The US Airlines industry was primarily a highly controlled one, with heavy regulations imposed upon the air fares, air routes as well as the air schedules. Prevalence of such restrictions within the airlines arena had serious implications upon market demand. The Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB) restricted the entry of new players within the industry, depending upon the approval provided by the Department of Transportation (DOT). Prior to deregulation, unless the DOT endorsed any indigenous airlines company as fit and able to commute passengers within the national premises, they could not operate within the domestic territory (Siddiqi, n.d., par. 1). The outcome of creating such a highly constrictive environment of operation had serious drawbacks upon the cost structure of the companies which were active in the business. Though initially, the profit margin earned by the US airlines industry was quite high, viz., 14%, the situation worsened following the restrictions inflicted by the boar d upon the margin. According to the guidelines being implemented, the profits earned upon stockholder’s equity could not be exceeded beyond a certain ceiling, so that the players who were already present in the market could not increase the air fares above a particular point (Kwong, 1988, p. 14). Though, a low air fare was considered as an advantage for the customers who availed the service, the companies suffered from bottlenecks as their avenues for procuring capital was approaching a standstill.

Friday, August 23, 2019

Assignment (Economics) Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

(Economics) - Assignment Example The adverse impact of tax hike was phenomenal for casual drinkers as they massively reduced their consumption, thereby resulting in overall decrease in aggregate beer demand. Obviously, the producers were unable to increase prices substantially considering demand / consumption pattern and thus suffered stupendous financial losses. For instance, the producers adopted downsizing strategy, which in turn resulted in 50,000 job losses. The revenues to government also declined in general as the beer industry did not record significant market expansion and growth. The demand from hardcore drinkers also reduced as they switched to other cheap drinks to ensure their balance of their financial budgets. All in all, the rollback of levies / taxes would not lead to mammoth rise in consumption; rather will reduce financial burden on producers as well as consumers. Next, consumers would not change their drinking habit and start consuming irresponsibly; therefore, this is just a myth that rollback o f beer taxes may cause grave healthcare issues. Reference Beer Tax Website â€Å"Just the Facts† Roll Back the Beer Tax

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Personal Fictional Writing Essay Example for Free

Personal Fictional Writing Essay Imagine you are Ralph on the island; write a series of at least three diary entries, which record important episodes during your stay there. Include in the entries your changing thoughts and feelings about what occurs and about yourself and the other boys with you. Diary Entry 1: Chapter 5: Beast from water I just do not understand. It is not meant to be like this. I mean, everything requires improvisation. I call a meeting and all of them, Jacks group of boys, think that they are there to make jokes. There is no time for fun, but business. I tell them about the huts and how they are unstable, but they remain pessimistic as if they have something better to do. What can that something be? Hunting. Well, Jack seems to think so. He said that he would hunt down the beast. Really, we do not even know if the beastie truly exists. Jack is so aggressive, marching on an army of anarchy among the boys to hunt down an imaginary beast. Mass hysteria erupted when one of the diffident littluns, Percival was his name, said that the beast came from the sea, like a giant squid. I really do not know what has gone into their poor, innocent souls, torturing them like that. The fear of the boys is mounting, day after day. Well, perhaps there could be a beastie. I know that even I am not immune to fear. Nevertheless, Piggy says there is no beast, so there isnt. Piggy knows. I mean, he is intelligent unlike me. He can think and make decisions without being unsuccessful with his natural, intellectual ability. He would be so much better at being chief than I am. It is just inequitable that Jack bullies him. But what can I do? Do I really want Jack on my back too? Its enough I cannot stand having him within a one-metre radius of me. Moreover, Jacks focus on hunting will prevent all of us on this island from leaving it and seal our fate as no more than animals. I just cannot help realising this. However, Jack and his hunters do not. It is simple to them: fear ferments and spreads in the group, so they result to violence and hunting as a solution to the obstacle. They do not care about where they use the lavatory, about keeping the fire going, or most importantly, getting rescued. Even the rules they do not care about. I am very frustrated. I just cannot stand this any more. Without my rules, there will be disastrous consequences to everything Jack and his hunters do. My rules keep the boys tethered to some semblance of society, but they seem oblivious to it and are willing to drop the rules like a hot pan. Life on this island just seems to get harder by every passing day. With Simon wandering off at night, no wonder the littluns are frightened. However, I should not let that bother me. On this island, there are by far more important things to do, like being rescued. How much boys on this island do believe in ghosts? What are the children on this island? Humans, animals, or savages? Piggy was head-on right by yelling at them. Surely, there are not any ghosts or beasties on this island, because Piggy told me so. He tells me everything, and everything he says is true. It has to be true. I feel as if I should step down as chief, for once and for all, but Piggys already warned me that if I do, Jack will become leader and the only thing he will lead us to do is hunt. But being rescued is better than hunting and I, for that matter, want to be rescued and back to my old life: with my mother and father. It is dreadful here. I try to shut my eyes of the surroundings that envelope me, and force the image of my life before this tragedy. Nothing. There is nothing to see. This life is like a virus, invading and sweeping the happy memories of my life before until there is nothing. I thought life here would be different, better somehow, but it seems that I got the contrary. Now, everything on this island makes me feel depressed. Even my own physical appearance, especially my hair; it has grown shabby and uncomfortably long. I have all grown shabby with neglect. With all the oppressive responsibility weighing down on my shoulders, I wish that the ground now would open up and swallow me down into its depth, to close me off the problems on this island, which I face. Diary Entry 2: Chapter 7: Shadows and Tall Trees This is it. A change from this place will do us all a whole lot of good. I have become so dirty and unclean over the past few months, that the conditions that I take myself for now is normal. The rest of the boys seem to take these conditions as normal too. The longing that I have for a deep, hot bath to purify my body and wrap me up in its enclosing warmth is unbearable. Every thing seemed to have been going well, but every step I take on this island to please Jack, just defines the how hard it will be, when you try to break the boys away from Jacks spell-binding habit: Hunting. Not that I am complaining. I followed the hunters today and the view that is to be seen on the opposite side of the island is utterly different to the view that is observed from the side of which we have settled in. However, although there are spectacular sceneries that can be viewed from this island, there is no place like home. The ocean is like a thick wall, an impermeable barrier, preventing my and the other boys escape. Simon seems to think that we will leave the island eventually. But I doubt that will ever happen. Simon is so batty. Now, with Jack thinking himself chief, everything is impossible. But I have to say, I did enjoy myself at the hunt. It was breathtaking. Originally, we were meant to be hunting down the beast, but Jack suggested that we could also hunt a pig in addition to continuing our search for the beast. It was smashing! I was excited so much that I was caught up in the adventure; I threw my spear at the boar, and hit it. But I suppose it was not much of a hit; it only nicked his snout. That was the first time I took aim and I cannot believe my luck. It has to be good marksmanship. I felt so exhilarated during the hunt, as the primal appeal of killing pigs dawned upon me. At least I have something to be proud of, other than some cut by a boars tusks. Jack thought that it was necessary to point the wound on his left arm out to the crowd of boys. I cannot understand Jack. He has such an eccentric personality; predictable though, he would not actually change much from his self-centred self. I hit the boar but he still pays the same attention as if I were thin air. The boys are impervious too, when they are around Jack that is. It is like he has the glamour that allows the other boys to be absorbed in him. No matter how much attention you persist or demand to acquire, the power that is bound inside Jack will not give in. I tried to show the boys that I was a good aimer, even though it was my first time hunting, but it was useless, like I said. Jack and the boys were truculent when they closed on towards Robert. They started chanting, Kill the Pig and I guess they were caught up in their momentum of chanting, that they actually started jabbing Robert with their spears, at first in jest, then with a more dangerous intent. He was yelping so much that I though my ears would give out. Instantly, all the excitement that I had in me from the hunt vanished. I was so glad that Robert escaped their grasp. I did join them with this too. I didnt know what was happening to me. The urge to kill was too overpowering. For all I know, we would have killed him. Jack was so self-absorbed, taking himself seriously, that he said that they could use a littlun next time to dress up as a pig, so that they can actually kill it. That was such a sick idea. They are taking a life away. The matter of life is not a game. However, the boys enamoured by Jacks statement began to laugh. This was not funny. They had to be reminded that this is only a game. I am starting to get concerned about the increasingly violent and impulsive behaviour of the hunters. Killing the littluns is trivial compared to what these hunters are capable of. We started climbing the mountain, as evening fell, and I realized that we would not be able to get back to the beach until morning. I did not want to leave Piggy with the littluns all night. I thought it was too much responsibility for one to handle, but I suppose Piggy would not mind; he will work things out easily. But Jack did not address this concern for Piggy kindly; he mocked me about it. What good chief would he make if he does not treat the boys with respect? But luckily Simon offered to go and inform Piggy of our whereabouts. Jack was still on his frenzy of hunting a pig, in the dark. Surely he could see that it was not a suitable time to hunt, but he is so impulsive that even he will not be blinded by the darkness that encloses the island. I thought that if we hunt in the morning it would be more apposite. He does not even think twice when I speak to him. I am chief, he should listen to me as any other boy on the island does. Giving the new understanding that Piggy provided me with, and sensing the hostility from Jack, I knew that he loathed me. I asked him why but he had no answer. What would he answer if he had one anyway? I never showed him any hatred but if he wants me to play his game, I will play. He was so pressing to climb up the mountain, even though most of the hunters were tired and, of course, afraid. It was unveiled in their eyes. At that moment I thought of going back myself too, but what Jack said obliged me to remain. He said that I was afraid. I am not afraid more than he is and he knows that, but he just doesnt want to admit it. I was surprised that my voice actually balanced itself proportionally, so that none of my reluctance or weakness showed. I was almost motivated by it. Just moments before this, Jack was accusing me of being afraid and now he was. He claimed that he saw something bulge on the mountain. Of course, due to my newfound bravery, I agreed to search for it immediately. But while I had a mask of bravery composed on my outside, inside I was not sure of what to do. Not sure about whether I should take a step forward or backward. What to do if the beast attacks me. It was so frustrating that it felt like the anxiety was scratching my brain away bit by bit. It seemed at the top of the mountain that I was paralysed. But I realised, eventually, what I was doing this for. To show Jack that I am not scared like he claims. So I fused my hatred for him, with my will and took two steps forward. That is when I saw it. My legs gave out under me, like an involuntary reflex reaction, but a button inside triggered me to get upon my feet as quick as I can and escape. It seemed like hours had passed in those few seconds for me to get over the shock of what I had just observed. It was like a huge rock thing and it bowed, and when the wind blew, it lifted its head to reveal a ruined face. It was unapproachable. Terrifying. I realised that the horror witnessed by the littluns in words, is inconsequential, in comparison to when you view the beast yourself. I am glad it is over for now, but I have a deep feeling that this thing, beastie, will not take long to return its visit. We must get prepared. Diary Entry 3: Chapter 8: Gift for the Darkness No one believes me. Even piggy. He was sceptical of the whole idea of me witnessing a beast on the top of the mountain. What angered me more is Jacks assurance to the group of boys that the hunters can defeat the beast. But are his hunters any good when faced with a beast that even the bravery of me, Roger and Jack could not defeat? His hunters are merely boys with sticks. I was right to point this out to him; he cannot be so ignorant of the beastie. Piggy said that I should not have called his boys that, but honestly, what choice did I have! And he never left it there either. Oh no. He called me a coward and accused me of calling the rest of his hunters cowards too. What right does he have to call me that? He even said that I am not a proper chief. As if he would be better than me as chief. All he cares about is hunting, hunting, hunting, and nothing else. If this is how he wants to live his life, then I doubt he will ever have a life, since he will be spending the rest of it on this doomed island. Adding more to this, the punch from the whole of this meeting came when he put my position of being chief in a vote, between him, and me to the boys. It is so hurtful when I think about it; I cannot believe that he holds such a grudge against me, that much to challenge my position of being chief. I have not did anything wrong to him. But, I guess I should not be so surprised. Its so Jack. Whenever he comes across something that he cannot stand, he feels compelled to sweep it out of his way. In this case, it is me. Oddly, I do feel sad and uneasy due to him leaving. I, certainly, was not expecting him to leave so quickly. Especially crying. The thought of him crying has never crossed my mind at all, even though I have been living with him for several months. It is not like him. He was always that kind of person like a rock, with his weaker feelings and emotions imperceptible, no one would have thought that he would be exposed so easily like that. Relieved that he left, Piggy and Simon seemed untouched, as if a burden has been lifted away from their shoulders. I guess they are calm now, since all Jack would do is pick on them, as they are the weaker vessels of the boys. Piggy tried to make me realise that there are potential benefits from Jack leaving, but I have this strong feeling inside me, telling me that something ominous is about to happen, resulting from this predicament. I just cannot put my finger on what is going to happen. He said that now we can start focusing on the fire more. Now that the fire has been built on the beach it may be difficult to see from far away, but at least somebody will keep it going. At least there is a trace of hope of being rescued. However, I really doubt that most of us will actually be rescued, as just after the building of the fire was done on the beach, I noticed several of the biguns missing. I did not know what to do. I felt as though Jack had taken part of me as an equipment to equip himself for evil and savagery on this island. The more I come to think about it, the clearer it becomes to me that Jack is the disruptive element and the root of destruction on this island. My authority is slipping away faster than I could imagine. Just a few months ago, I had it all, but now there is nothing left. I cannot understand the appeal of hunting if you do not attempt to be rescued at the same time. There is a battlefield of emotions warring in me. I tried to show the boys that I am a good chief, that I will get them rescued, but they were all oblivious to me and so left for Jack. It hurt so much that even speaking was like climbing a cliff for me. I suppose now everything is too late; everything is set in motion, I cannot do anything to change it. Maybe it would be better. We could be happier. Piggy says so. Piggy is so confident that everything will turn out to be okay, it almost scares me. We still have Samneric to help us keep the fire going, some littluns and I suppose Simon. Although Piggy and I never knew where he was, we thought that he might be climbing up the mountain. He would still stay unfazed by anything. He has cracked. With Simon, he is that kind of person that his feelings are buried deep inside him and you would have to dig a lot before reaching them. I am surprised that I never thought of Simon, in a way like this, before. You just have to listen to him to get to know him, but of course, Jack never listens to anybody or anything, so what would he know? At this point, I really dont care who I have got in my group as long as they are with me; I need all the support I can get. I was startled by the sudden uproar in the forest. Jack, wearing just dazzle paint and a belt, was even more startling. He told us that he and his group were living across the beach, by a flat rock, where they have fun. It was kind of him to invite us to join his tribe, but I know that if I were to join his tribe, there would be no going back and certainly no hope of rescue. I thought he was about to take the conch at first, when I saw him. I mean the conch to me is still a symbol of ritual and order, and without order on this island, there would be nothing. I still do not know why that thought passed through my head at that moment. But I saw that some of his hunters did take some branches of fire. Perhaps they took it to keep warm, or even cook their latest hunting victim on. But even by how much I would like to go to eat the meat and have fun, keeping the fire going was and is still the most important task at hand. It is going to be hard to keep the fire going, and the amount of wood that we need is even harder to get. I suppose Samneric could take two shifts. But Bill appeared sceptical to the whole idea that we will be capable of keeping the fire going. He suggested that we go to Jack and his hunters feast and tell them that the fire is hard among us. Moreover, the fact that there was meat there, hot and satisfying, was enough to make us sprint to cross our enemys border. Even Piggy could not resist. He was ravenous. I saw it in his eyes. Every face that my gaze landed upon was burning with the overwhelming hunger for meat. No one would ever let a chance like this pass by and we werent going to either. The thought of food and meat was too appealing, so we gave in to our desire.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Martin Luther King Jr’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail” Essay Example for Free

Martin Luther King Jr’s â€Å"Letter from Birmingham Jail† Essay Martin Luther King Juniors â€Å"letter from Birmingham Jail† was the reflection upon protest against unjust laws was established against him and his fellow men. Throughout his letter he uses many great philosophers and historical events to justify his own protest to be necessary to do what’s right. King was the leader of civil-rights group that supported protest against traditional views of the society and unjust laws established in the era.† In any nonviolent campaign there are four basic steps: collection of the facts to determine whether injustices exist; negotiation; self purification; and direct action. † ( Taylor) In his letter from Birmingham Jail King states: â€Å"It was illegal to aid and comfort a Jew in Hitler’s Germany. Even so, I am sure that, had I lived in Germany at that time, I would have aided and comforted my Jewish brothers. If today I lived in a Communist country where certain principles dear to the Christian faith are suppressed, I would openly advocate disobeying that country’s anti-religious laws† (King, 6). Here in this excerpt shows that King encourages protest because in some extreme circumstances becomes necessary, be it in Hitler’s Germany, a Communist country, or any situation in which injustices are occurring. In the end of the sentence King openly admits that he would protest against established laws or traditions by all means necessary because they favor the unjust. The letter was written to his fellow clergymen to explain his prior actions and to attempt justified and appropriate for the situation. He expressed that he exhausted every other option to justify them. In the letter he tried to explain to the clergy that his actions although illegal were possible and direct action was the only available option left, which could make a difference. â€Å"One may well ask: â€Å"How can you advocate breaking some laws and obeying others?† The answer lies in the fact that there are two types of laws: just and unjust. One has not only a legal but a moral responsibility to obey just laws. Conversely, one has a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws. I would agree with St. Augustine that â€Å"an unjust law is no law at all†. Now, what is the difference between the two? How does one determine whether a law is just or unjust? (King, 5). Throughout history, there have been many unjust laws. Many people follow laws just because they are laws. Sometimes people don’t even agree with a law, but they go along because it’s in society acceptable or because it’s just the law. I think that by writing the letter, and putting forward the definition, King is challenging his readers to consider whether or not a law is just. If a law is unjust, it is the responsibility of the people to get it overturned. A society should not live with an unjust law. By choosing to go against law it shows that king primarily a teleological thinker. In conclusion, King wrote â€Å"Letter from Birmingham City Jail† for the purpose of making his audience realize that they are not carrying out our Constitution and the Declaration of Independence which is the United States was founded upon. King only wants what should be granted to all United States citizens, this being freedom, justice, and equality. He is saying he is in jail for only doing what is right, by trying to achieve what is right through non-violence and the fact that he is in jail is unjust, does not support equality, and freedom. Work Cited Taylor, Justin.† Between Two Worlds. Martin-luther-king-jr-letter-from-birmingham-jail† 23 Jan. 2013.

Fullerenes Synthesis Extraction and Purification

Fullerenes Synthesis Extraction and Purification There are many methods to synthesis C60 and C70 in gram quantities in the laboratory. In addition, higher mass fullerenes (larger fullerenes molecules) can be produced and isolated , albeit in very small amounts [1]. Most methods for generation of large quantities of fullerenes produce a mixture of impurity molecules and stable fullerenes. For this reason, fullerene synthesis must be followed by processes of extraction and purification of fullerenes from impurities according to mass [1]. Synthesis of Fullerenes: Fullerene molecules can be synthesized in the laboratory in a wide variety of methods, all involving the formation of a carbon- rich vapour [1]. Early methods used laser evaporation technique which produces very small quantities of fullerenes [1]. The later approaches involve an electric discharge between graphite electrodes in He gas [10]. Laser Evaporation Technique: This method was used in 1984 for the first time by Rohlfing and others [8]. They noticed that carbon cluster Cn with a huge number of carbon atoms (more than 190) could be produced [9]. In 1985 Kroto, Smalley and co- workers used this technique to generate and detect the most stable carbon clusters [7]. This method involves vaporization of carbon species from the rotating graphite disk into a high density helium, using a Nd:YAG laser operation at 532nm, (fig2). The resulting carbon clusters were analysised by time -of- flight mass spectrometry. The first observation of the mass of C60 was a 720 amu peak. Although this approach produces minute quantities of fullerenes, it is still essential if when we use later modification. This modification will help to heat the dusk of graphite. Therefore, it gives remarkable control of fullerene distribution and the generation of specific fullerenes [2]. Arc Evaporation: There is no doubt that this technique is an efficient way to produce gram quantities of fullerenes in the laboratory [1]. For the formation of fullerenes by this technique, an arc is struck between two graphite electrodes in atmosphere of 100~200 torr of He. The contact between the electrodes is maintained by the influence of gravity. The apparatus is surrounded by water to cool the soot to achieve the resulting soot which may contain approximately 10-15% of soluble fullerenes [2]. The first design by Wudl and co- workers used a pyrex cylinder for the vacuum shroud. Although this gives a suitable method for visual inspection of the graphite electrodes through the well, the glass cylinder is easily damaged. For this reason, it is appropriate to change it with a stainsteel cylinder with a window [1]. Fullerene Extraction: In this process of fullerenes production, soluble impurity molecules and insoluble nanoscale carbon soot are generated with soluble fullerenes. Two effective methods are used to extract the fullerenes from the soot [1]. Solvent Methods: Solvent method is the most common method is used to dissolve the fullerenes in benzene, toluene (preferred over benzene due to its toxicity is lower) or other suitable solvent. However, the solvent also contains other soluble hydrocarbon impurities [2]. It can be separated soot and other insoluble molecules from the solution by filtration. The early method used Soxhelt extraction in a hot solvent to remove fullerenes from the soot. This technique is used where the molecules to be extracted from the solid state are soluble in organic solvent, such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from coal. This apparatus consists of double thimble containing soot, fullerenes and other materials and at the bottom the solvent is boiled in the flask. The solvent vapors and rises to condense in the condenser unit, the solvent distills then the solution passes through the thimble wall. The solution which contains the extracted molecules returns to the flask. The molecules that are not soluble in the so lvent remain in the thimble. Another alternative method, the soot is separated in tetrahydrofuran (THF) at room temperature before sonicating the soot in an ultrasonic bath for 20 minute. Removing insoluble molecules by filtration and a rotary evaporator at 50Â °C are used to remove THF from the fullerenes. It can be noticed that the higher boiling point solvent and more polar isolate the higher mass fullerenes [1]. Sublimation Methods: It can be sublimated microcrystalline C60 and C70 powder at low temperature Ts~350Â °C (C60) and Ts~460Â °C (C70). For this reason, C60 and C70 can be separated directly from the soot without introducing solvents, such as benzene, toluene, carbon disulfide or hexane. This method provides a beneficial alternative to solvent extraction for some cases which are sensitive to contamination of solvent in the sample. In this approach, the raw soot is placed in a quartz tube and the whole apparatus is heated in a furnace. Dynamic pumping is preferred because it is likely the soot may contain polyaromatic hydrocarbons impurities. The raw arc soot in the end of tube is kept at the highest temperature T~600-700Â ° C. The higher mass fullerenes sublimate from the soot which then condenses in the colder section of the tube. Since the sublimation temperature of C70 and higher fullerenes are higher than that of C60, they will condense closer to the soot. The production of a C60 molecular beam fr om a microcrystalline mixture of C60 and C70 depends on the difference in sublimation temperature between C60 and C70. This microcrystalline mixture is placed in a dynamic vacuum and is heated above the sublimation temperature of C60. The sublimation rate for C60 in vacuum at T~400 Â °C is favored by a factor of 20 over that C70. A pure molecular beam of C60 can be obtained, because C70 is a factor of ~ 7 less abundant in arc soot than C60 [1]. Kratschmer et al [11] used the method of directly subliming fullerenes from the solid material. However, this does not provide pure fullerenes. Fullerene Purification: The previous methods of extraction may bring impurity molecules with the most stable fullerenes. The step of chemical purification must be carried out, if a pure fullerene microcrystalline powder or solution is desired. The step involves sublimation methods based on temperature gradients and solvent methods based on liquid chromatography. Fullerene purification means the separation of the different fullerenes in the fullerene extract into C60, C70, C76, C84 etc. Sensitive tools, such as liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), optical absorption spectroscopy and infrared [1]. Solvent Methods: The main technique for fullerene purification is liquid chromatography (LC). LC is a wet chemistry method which includes a solution ( called the mobile phase ) of a molecular mixture. This solution is forced to pass through a column filled with a high surface area solid (called the stationary phase ). The separation of fractions is verified qualitatively by the comparison of the observed optical spectra, vibration spectra and NMR data or by color ( magenta or purple for C60 in toluene and reddish- orange for C70 in toluene). Liquid chromatography separates molecules according to their weights. Moreover, this technique can be utilized to separate a single allotrope, such as C76, or to isolate isomers with different molecular shapes but having the same molecular weight, such as separating C78 with C2Ï… symmetry from C78 with D3 symmetry [1]. The liquid chromatography process involves chemical or physical interactions between a particular molecule and the stationary phase. This interaction reduces (or raises) the rate of migration for that molecule through the column or raises (or reduces) the retention time for that molecule. Remarkable chemical or physical differences for the molecular species, such as surface absorption, shape and mass are important to provide a clear chromatographic separation. Early approaches to C60, C70, and higher fullerenes purification included flash column chromatography of the raw fullerene in a column packed with neutral alumina as the stationary phase and hexane/toluene ( 95/5 volume % ) as the mobile phase. Although this process was found useful, it used abundant quantities of solvent that was difficult to recycle [1]. One of the first important development to this method was high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

As You Like It Essay: Violating the Established Social Order

Violating the Established Social Order in As You Like It  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚   The recent White House sex scandal raised issues about gender, desire, and an established social order - issues that questioned established social norms and ideas about the power and politics of sex. Our society is not the first to recognize the effects that sexual politics and gender relations have had on social order, however. The works of William Shakespeare are ample evidence that Elizabethan England was firmly in touch with these notions. Shakespeare’s keen observations and careful crafting demonstrate over and over again that the battle for power is an ever-present one, and that social order is an ever-changing phenomenon. Quite often, Shakespeare questions the "norms" of gender, desire, and social order, and does his best to show that these norms can easily be changed (often with hilarious consequences). As You Like It is a prime example. Rife with usurpations, cross-dressing, female aggressiveness, and even a god named "Hymen", Shakespeare does his best to throw the established norms into disarray. He takes the "rules" regarding gender, desire, and social disorder completely upside-down. As You Like It shows that, like a hymen, these rules are made to be broken. The catalyst for the chaos the drives the play is certainly the violation of social order. Charles the wrestler tells us, "†¦the old Duke is banished by his younger brother the new Duke†¦" (I,i,99-100), and we are off and running. The old usurped Duke (Senior) has gone to live in the forest of Arden with several loyal followers, "and there they live like the old Robin Hood of England" (I,i,116). This allusion to the social outsider who robs from the rich and gives to the poor highlights how th... ...of Chicago Press, 1946. Harris, Laurie Lamzen, ed. Shakespearean Criticism : Volume 5. Detroit : Gale Research Company Book Tower, 1984. Holland, Norman. Psychoanalysis and Shakespeare. New York McGraw-Hill, 1966. O'Connor, Evangeline M. Who's Who and What's What In Shakespeare. New York : Avenel Books, 1978. Shakespeare, William. As You Like It. Eds., Louis B. Wright and Virginia A. LaMar. New York : Washington Square Press, 1960. Spurgeon, Caroline. Shakespeare's Imagery And What It Tells Us. London : Cambridge University Press, 1965. Stevenson, Burton. The Standard Book of Shakespearean Quotations. New York : Funk & Wagnalls Company, Inc., 1953. Thaler, Alwin. Shakespeare and Our World. Knoxville, TN University of Tennessee Press, 1966. Webster, Margaret. Shakespeare Without Tears. New York Capricorn Books, 1975.      

Monday, August 19, 2019

Fantastic Elements of Saint George and The Dragon :: Saint George and The Dragon

Fantastic Elements of Saint George and The Dragon      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Margaret Hodges adapted "Saint George and The Dragon" from its original work that was written by Edmund Spencer. "Saint George and The Dragon" is a short story that was published in 1984. Margaret Hodges, who adapted this fantastic literature, is from North America. " Saint George and The Dragon" shows many characteristic of Magical Realism; however, it is Fantastic Literature.    "Saint George and The Dragon" is similar to Magical Realism because the characters within the story treat the events as a normal occurrence. The way in which reality is mixed with a touch of non-reality supports that the story is one of Magical Realism. Another essential part of Magical Realism is the normality of the characters. The lead character within "Saint George and The Dragon" is ordinary or mundane. Unlike fantastic literature with its Hercules and many unreal heroes, Saint George is just a normal human being. Finally, the one element that carries the largest weight is no limitations are set through out the entire story. The way that the story sets no boundaries is extremely important. It is for that reason that "Saint George and The Dragon" is probably teetering on the balance of being listed under Magical Realism.    "Saint George and The Dragon" does have its differences from Magical Realism, though. For instance, many things within the short story could never happen or even exist. Dragons, Fairies, and Dwarfs are all unrealistic. What is even more unrealistic is the fact that Saint George battles the dragon and defeats it.    Biblical allusions are sewn throughout the short story. The biblical allusions seemed as if they where almost subliminally encoded. Perhaps the simplest clue is in the title, Saint George. However, if one reads closely one can begin to pick up on the biblical allusions:    But the old hermit said, "The Fairy Queen has sent you to do brave deeds in this world. That High City that you see is in another world. Before you climb the path to it and hang your shield on its wall, go down into the valley and fight the dragon that you were sent to fight. It is time for me to tell you that you were not born of fairy folk, but of English earth. The fairies stole you away as a baby while you slept

Sunday, August 18, 2019

The Immortal Artist :: essays research papers

The immortal Artist Throughout the history of the world humans have been intrigued by a condition referred to as immortality. Immortality is the state in which one defies death, thus conquering the realm of being a mortal. Scientists have searched for ways to create this phenomenon. With there over thought out and complex ideas they had managed to overlook the obvious. People had been achieving immortality for years. The key is not in physical exesistance but in your actions, creations, and reputation which will live on long after you die. T.L. Lange, a reputable artist from Atlanta Georgia, once said "Music and art play the dominant roles in life. In the liberation from the self, the ripples which are left to be remembered. It is in this moment that we achieve immortality and imagine what goes well with corn flakes†¦." The visual Arts students at The North Carolina School of the Arts have utilized this knowledge in such a way so that their class has remained immortal. As a class, the class of 1986, the students composed a mural. Dr. Chaplin created the mural and gave each student a representation. He managed to re-create an image of each student through regenerating his or her image from a photograph. The canvas is divided into eighteen individual and distinct sections. Each section is devoted to one student picture or figure, and their mood or feelings in which they wanted to portray. The designer, Chaplin, gave the work a sense of unity by using all pure hue colors and geometric construction with illustrative organic shapes to create the students. The use of repetition in color and general shapes gives the piece an intimate since of unity that also pulls the students together in a metaphoric sense. The work is residing in the student commons. The commons is designed as a place for students to dine, relax and visit with their friends. Therefor this is an appropriate place for the painting because it helps create the feeling that they are relaxing with the students of today. The work is not at all accented by architectural lighting or by any frame, and is not put on a pedestal to be observed.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

How values are mediated through policy, social experiences

This assignment will discourse issues around citizenship instruction and how the values are mediated through policy, societal experiences and reflected in educational practice. Other arguments which will be included in the essay are as follows: definitions of CE, history behind citizenship instruction, why this was this introduced in schools, teacher position on citizenship instruction and the intent of this topic. Another position will be what kids will larn from analyzing citizenship instruction in schools and how the instructor can efficaciously learn citizenship in schools. There are figure of definitions of Citizenship Education which include: the Crick Report ( 1998, p.9 ) ‘citizenship has meant engagement in public personal businesss by those who had the rights of citizens: to take portion in public argument and, straight or indirectly, in determining the Torahs and determinations of a province ‘ . Another definition of citizenship is: Collins ( 2008 p.1 ) ‘citizenship instruction is about assisting immature people to understand their rights and duties, to understand how society works, and to play an active function in society ‘ . A different definition of citizenship instruction Skelton, Francis and Smulyan ( 2006 p.286-287 ) ‘tends to intend that school pupils are taught about representative democracy and parliamentary political relations ‘ . From these definitions it can be seen that the chief countries that are involved in citizenship instruction are political relations and the individual ‘s function in s ociety. On the other manus citizenship takes on more political point of position and it is more argument based. Citizenship instruction is besides to make with larning to take part, continue the jurisprudence, put others before your ego, to run into your duties. Prosecute in political action, act morally and esteem all in a pluralist society. However, in 1964 the Association for Teaching the Social Sciences ( ATSS ) was founded at the Institute of Education, University of London, which was to advance societal scientific discipline learning in schools. The topics included in this were sociology, economic sciences and political scientific discipline. During this clip Bernard Crick was interested in discoursing ways of acquiring political relations in secondary schools and the benefits of this for the students. Cairns, Gardner and Lawton ( 2004 p.11 ) have looked at this farther ‘At some phase all immature people. . . should derive some consciousness of what political relations is about ‘ . Crick subsequently became active in a course of study undertaking financed by the Hansard Society called the Programme for Political Literacy that produced a study: ‘Political Education and Political Literacy ‘ ( Hansard, 1978 ) ‘ . Due to a alteration in authorities at that clip prevented this study from bei ng published otherwise UK could hold seen citizenship instruction in the course of study. Cairns, Gardner and Lawton ( 2004 p.11 ) province: ‘unfortunately, the alteration of authorities in 1979 prevented any immediate action: most Conservatives were so leery of political instruction – ‘citizenship instruction ‘ might hold been more acceptable ‘ . Significantly in the 1990 ‘s there was a concern over deficiency of involvement towards political relations by the young person, so the authorities had to step in and make something to work out this job. As a consequence the authorities introduced citizenship instruction to give kids more consciousness of political activities, as some statistical information, showed grounds why first clip electors, do non vote during elections. The Crick study ( 1998, p.15 ) stated: ‘A MORI study for the News of the World in March 1997 on first-time electors found that 28 per cent said they would non vote or were improbable to, 55 per cent said that they were non interested or could non be bothered, 17 per cent said that it would non do any difference, and 10 per cent said they did non swear any politicians ‘ . I agree with this statement because some people today do non vote during elections. So if the kids are taught the importance of political relations and voting during elections, they may acquire a better apprehension through citizenship. Chiefly the Crick Report which was introduced in 1998 to sketch the principle and indispensable purposes of instruction for citizenship. The Crick Report ( 1998, p.13 ) states that it is a â€Å" critical and distinguishable statutory portion of the course of study, an entitlement for all students in its ain right†¦ Citizenship instruction can be enhanced by and do important parts to – every bit good as draw upon – other topics and facets of the course of study. † In the Crick Report ( 1998 ) there is merely a brief reference of RE and how it can be used to research moral and societal concerns. Alternatively there has been some unfavorable judgment on the Crick Report this has been examined by Faulks ( 2006, p.60 ) who suggests that ‘The chief failings of the Crick Report can be understood in footings of its abstract construct of citizenship. The Crick Report fails, in peculiar, to give due consideration to the institutional and societal constructions that form the context of citizenship and which, if ignored, must needfully restrict the effectual bringing of an inclusive citizenship instruction ‘ . I agree with this statement because schools find it hard to learn this lesson efficaciously due to miss counsel. But on the other manus there is counsel for instructors on learning citizenship instruction such as the national course of study. However during a conference there were suggestions of other importance of citizenship harmonizing to Rooney ( 2007 ) it can assist halt household dislocations, do communities stronger besides underpin societal coherence. This is critical because there will be less force on the streets, there will be more regard for other civilizations besides more people will be happier. This can be linked to Freire thought on duologue which he suggests involves regard and working with one another. He believes this is of import because it will develop community and construct societal capital. Since August 2002 in primary schools, citizenship instruction, is non statutory but it is still taught. However for secondary schools citizenship instruction is statutory for Key Stages 3 and 4. Citizenship is a separate topic to PSHE ( Personal, Social, Health & A ; Education ) but this is a little portion of citizenship. It besides has its ain capable content of survey, farther more citizenship can be chosen as a GCSE short class. In September 2009 citizenship became a full GCSE and A degree. Assessment in citizenship should concentrate on the advancement of kids ‘s development of accomplishments and cognition and apprehension of the topic. QCA besides known as Qualifications and Curriculum Authority ( 2001, p.16 ) states ‘Assessment in citizenship should be active and participatory, turn toing advancement in pupils ‘development of accomplishments and action every bit good as cognition and understanding ‘ . In fact from analyzing citizenship kids will larn a bout rights, duties, authorities, democracy, diverse nature of society. Furthermore the intent of citizenship instruction in schools is critical because, the kids can larn about political relations, rights the kids are entitled to such as the right to instruction and how to be a good citizen in society. The Crick Report ( 1998, p.40 ) examined the benefits of citizenship instruction ‘in schools and colleges is to do secure and to increase the cognition, accomplishments and values relevant to the nature and patterns of participative democracy ‘ . Another benefit of citizenship is to heighten consciousness of rights and responsibilities besides the duties needed for kids to be active citizens. This will give value to the kid, schools and society of engagement in the local and wider community. There are three chief strands of survey in citizenship suggested by Crick in his Crick Report are as follows: foremost Social and moral duty – which is to make with kids larning form the really first, self-confidence and socially and morally respons ible for their behavior both in and beyond the schoolroom, both towards those in authorization and towards each other ( this is an indispensable pre-condition for citizenship ) . Secondly community engagement -which involves kids larning about and going helpfully involved in the life and concerns of their communities, including larning through community engagement and service to the community. Third it will learn kids on political literacy – this is when the kid is larning approximately and how to do themselves effectual in public life through cognition, accomplishments and values. Other thoughts on citizenship Kiwan ( 2008 p.41 ) states ‘citizenship instruction should turn to the apprehension of morality cutting across the public / private sphere differentiation ‘ . Citizenship instruction is of import in schools because it helps kids value engagement and in promoting students to go more involved in a scope of issues. So instructors must non merely state pupils t o vote but acquire the kids to debate on issues. Most significantly citizenship instruction in the national course of study gives pupils the cognition, understanding and accomplishments to enable them to take part in society as active citizens of a democracy. This is besides enables kids to be informed, critical and responsible and to be cognizant of their responsibilities and rights. Citizenship instruction provides a model which promotes the societal, moral and cultural development of students enabling them to go more self-assured and responsible in and beyond the schoolroom. Citizenship instruction encourages pupils to go helpfully involved in the life of their schools, vicinities, communities and the wider universe. Citizenship instruction promotes kids ‘s political and economic literacy through larning about the economic system and the democratic establishments. Citizenship helps pupils to derive a temperament for brooding treatment. There are several ways of learning Citizenship depending on the school: it can be taught as a cross curricular activity, suspended timetable yearss, coach or tutorial times, distinct lessons or a combination of all. Examples of activities the instructor can make with kids during citizenship lessons include: arguments on current issues such as moral and societal issues, or a choice of newspaper articles can be examined. Sing ‘people who can assist us ‘ , an activity where the kids can pull a image of them egos and insight composing around people who help them. Another illustration of an activity is the trade game, this is where kids represent different members of the community for illustration mill worker and foremans and so forth so you will be given a budget and you will necessitate to happen ways of apportioning the money. Another illustration can be a treatment on the political election this can be done by the instructor explicating how local and national elections tak e topographic point, explain the democracy in this state so the kids choose three or more persons to stand for the chief political parties so these kids can make a address for the category which will develop the kids ‘s ego assurance. Furthermore the instruction of citizenship is bettering, and there are now better chances for preparation, but in about 25 % of schools inspected in 2005/06 the proviso was found to be unequal. This per centum has reduced to 10 % when inspected. Many schools had non yet implemented full programme of citizenship across cardinal phases 3 and 4, and that misconceptions remain about what should be included in citizenship instruction ( Ofsted 2005-2006 ) . Other facets to see are the resources are available for learning citizenship instruction, schools have been given the resources but they do non ever use them really good. As Ofsted ( 2006, p.37 ) provinces: ‘citizenship has good resources in copiousness, but frequently they are non used ‘ . Ofsted found that Primary schools were judged as really strong with 21 out of 23 schools acquiring good or outstanding. Even though citizenship is non statutory in primary schools they still teach it good. This subdivision will discourse the statements for citizenship instruction including: the fact that the kids can derive cognition of how to be good citizens in society. The other plus side of the argument can be increased consciousness of the local community ; greater tolerance ; and a part to kids ‘s ability to do determinations. Whereas the statements against citizenship instruction are that: it will be excess work for the school and staff to program for the topic. Besides some instructors do non hold adequate cognition in this country to present to kids. So they will necessitate to be trained to develop their accomplishments on citizenship. There will be arguments on execution of citizenship instruction, how you are traveling to learn citizenship because, the course of study is overloaded and other topics may be dropped to do clip for this lesson. The chief argument environing this will be who is traveling to learn the topic in schools. Ofsted ( 2010 p.18-19 ) suggests that the failings in citizenship instruction include ‘weakness in instructor capable cognition ; hapless planning, misconstruing about the topographic point of citizenship in the course of study ‘ . Another failing found in the study is: ‘weak capable cognition ; usage of inappropriate learning methods ‘ . Another factor that affects citizenship instruction was the ‘lack of apprehension and assurance to learn citizenship ‘ . But will citizenship instruction stay in the course of study because there is a batch of guess around this docket. Harmonizing to Richardson ( 2010 ) ‘The Association for Citizenship Teaching says it understands the topic will be made non-statutory in the coming curriculum reorganization ‘ . Besides in the white paper ‘the importance of learning ‘ there is no reference of citizenship instruction in this papers but they do discourse PSHE it this papers. So from this the hereafter of citizenship instruction looks black unless people run to salvage this from go oning. In my sentiment I think that citizenship should and should non be portion of the course of study because it is the lone topic that educates kids about political relations. On the other manus this topic should non be in the course of study because kids find this topic drilling and they merely muss around in these lessons. If this happens it will do UK the least political literate. This subdivision will discourse the positions of those learning spiritual instruction are: that adding another lesson such as citizenship in the course of study, will give less clip for spiritual instruction to be taught to pupils. Broadbent and Brown ( 2002 p.174 ) ‘concerns expressed by instructors of spiritual instruction that the inclusion of distinct lessons of PSHE and citizenship instruction might badly infringe upon curriculum clip hitherto allotted to RE ‘ . In contrast to this argument Citizenship instruction will non impact the position of spiritual instruction in the course of study. Blunkett states ‘religious instruction ‘s place in the course of study will stay unchanged ( Watson 2004, p.260 ) . The other side of the argument could be acquiring rid of spiritual instruction. Watson. ( 2004, p.260 ) recommends the replacing of spiritual instruction with citizenship instruction in province schools. However the positions of those learning citizenship in schools are that it is of import for kids to understand and esteem themselves and others. Trusting others and holding high ego assurance when in treatment and debating with one another is of import. However some are disquieted it could turn into a civic lesson. Some instructors wanted citizenship to replace spiritual instruction because we can learn these values in citizenship of being of good citizen in society. My experience of citizenship in schools was non really good because we did non larn about this topic but we did analyze PSHE which was during tutorials. Throughout this period we carried out activities such as worksheets on drugs and sex instruction. We did non larn approximately political facets or how to be good citizens in this lesson and we did non hold arguments on issues. I have besides enclosed a school timetable on how citizenship instruction is included in the course of study. From looking at the timetable they teach citizenship as an person topic, which is taught every hebdomad for one hr. When I asked some students what they thought of citizenship about all the students I asked said that it is deadening and the lone thing the category did was misbehave and muss about in this lesson. Rutter ( 2002, p.76 ) suggests that ‘pupil motive towards citizenship instruction is hapless ‘ . They besides told me that the instructor did non care that kids were misconducting i n category. The ground for this could be that the instructor whom was learning this talk was non a specializer instructor in this field but I found that she was a scientific discipline instructor asked to learn this lesson. Harmonizing to Rutter most schools citizenship instruction Idaho taught by non specializer whom have no experience in learning societal scientific disciplines. In decision citizenship will learn the political side of the position point and about society. Since Watson ( 2004, p.267 ) argues that ‘citizenship instruction while educating for citizenship in its ain right by developing apprehension of our society and peculiar parts spiritual argument can do to the development of the active citizen ‘ . Citizenship instruction has a figure of failings as discussed in this assignment antecedently. But the chief 1s are that there are few specializer instructors which lead the school to inquire non specializer instructors to learn this lesson and these instructors lack cognition in this country.