Wednesday, October 30, 2019

The Necklace by Guy de Maupassant and Roman Fever by Edith Wharton Essay

The Necklace by Guy de Maupassant and Roman Fever by Edith Wharton - Essay Example This essay explores the importance of endings in two stories "The Necklace" by Guy de Maupassant, and "Roman Fever" by Edith Wharton. Ending have been used to facilitate an unexpected change of plot /achieve plot twist towards the end in the two stories. The type of ending used here is called twist ending. There is an unexpected change of outcome towards the end of the story and this brings up an unexpected conclusion to the story. For example, the two women start talking about the mix of love relationships they had before they just got married. Mrs. Ansley had been in love with the husband of Mrs. Slade before he married her. The two woman had been living as friends since childhood and were now chatting as friends as well. Just towards the end of the story, they reveal the grudges they have had against each other all this years and the tricks they had played on each other. For old woman, and both being widows, this is not the kind of thing anyone would expect them to hold much impor tance to youthful love battles (Wharton 1). Looking at the story the necklace, the author has also successfully managed to use a twist ending. Loisel and her had bought a new necklace for Mrs. Forester to replace the lost necklace and had kept this as a secret between themselves for 10 good years. They had been paying dearly for it and no one would expect that Loisel would want to reveal it least it brings up an enemity between them. Surprisingly, Loisel decided to tell Mrs. Forester the truth. To her amazement, she was not angered, instead, Mrs. Forester showed love to her old friend and even confessed that her original necklace was not real diamond nut fake, costing only five hundred francs (Maupassant 1). The importance of the use of twist ending in the two stories allows the readers of the two stories to re-evaluate the narratives and their characters as well. For example, one would have thought Mrs. Forester as a harsher strict women because of the fear in Loisel and her husban d. However, a reverse of this was revealed when she takes Loisel in two hands and tells her the truth behind her old necklaces. The type of ending is also important in allowing the readers to make discoveries in the two stories for example, only through the last portion of the story do the readers come to know the things that contributed to the somehow cold type of friendship and hidden grudges between Mrs. Ansley and Mrs. Slade. It reveals the romantic rivalry in their youth that made Mrs Slade to harbour feelings of hatred and jealousy against Mrs Ansley. By the words of Mrs. Ansley, †I had Barbara†, it reveals Barbara was an illegitimate child she had with Delphin, Mrs. Slades husband. At the same time, it helps to reveal the truth behind the rich-looking nature of Mrs Forester. She was not that rich but she gained status by going for substitutes and no one knew of this. Endings have also been used in the two stories to surprise their audiences. This type of ending is called surprise ending. The use of surprise ending as revealed in the last lines by Mrs. Ansley in the story the Roman fever. No reader would imagine the daughters of the two women were not only friends. They were sisters. Mrs. Ansley surprises her friend and the audience of the story by speaking in a way that revealed that Mrs. Slade’s plan to disappoint her friend and make her separate from her fiancee had turned out to be her luck. The

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Pathophysiology Of Dvt Formation Health And Social Care Essay

Pathophysiology Of Dvt Formation Health And Social Care Essay DVT is the result of a number of factors that include stasis of blood, endothelial injury and hypercoagulability of blood. PE is a major complication of DVT and occurs when a thrombus or blood clot detaches itself and is carried by the blood stream to the lungs. [J32] Proximal DVT carries a higher risk of PE than distal DVT. [J30, Havig] We focused on proximal DVT because it is much more reliably detected by ultrasonography and is considered to be clinically more important. [J53: 11,12, à §Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ã‚ ¡Ãƒ ¨Ã‚ Ã‚ ½K list,à §Ã…“Å ¸Ãƒ ¤Ã‚ ¿Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ãƒ §Ã¢â‚¬ Ã‚ ¨Ãƒ ¥Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã‹â€ Ãƒ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ Ã‚ ¹] DVT can occur in any veins. (near neck, etc.) However, it is not including in this literature review becauseà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ Upper limb DVT is being reported, particularly associated with central venous catheters. (K66, from J20:54) After a stroke, blood clots can form in the veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis, or DVT). These clots can break off and be carried in the blood stream to the heart and lungs (causing pulmonary embolism). This can be life threatening. [J30] Deep venous thrombosis may lead to pulmonary emboli, a frequent cause of avoidable deaths. [K52, from J53:1] Virchows triad The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying DVT include venous stasis and hypercoagulability linked to an increase in thrombin formation and platelet hyperactivity (Virchow 1858). [J30] The occurrence of one or more factors of Virchows triad (stasis of blood, endothelial injury and hypercoagulability of blood) in the venous system often leads to deep vein thrombosis (DVT) (Virchow 1858). [J18] DVT = PE = (à ¥Ã‚ ¦Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ãƒ ¨Ã‚ ¦Ã‚ Ãƒ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¾PEà §Ã… ¡Ã¢â‚¬Å¾incidence mortality rate (acute + Rehab) J43 P263 have) Lower extremity DVT can be anatomically be divided into proximal DVT involving the popliteal vein and proximal veins or distal DVT involving the calf vein and distal veins. [J59] DVT in the paralyzed legs of patients with stroke was reported as early as 1810 by Ferriar and again by Lobstein in 1833. [J45] Pathophysiology of DVT formation According to the Medsurg, Venous return is aided by the calf muscle pump. When the legs are inactive or the pump is ineffective, blood pools by gravity in the veins. Thrombus development is a local process. It begins by platelet adherence to the endothelium. Several factors promote platelet aggregation, including thrombin, fibrin, activated factor X, and catecholamines. In addition, where the platelets adhere to collagen, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is released. ADP is also released from the damaged tissues and disrupted platelets. ADP produces platelet aggregation that results in a platelet plug. Deep vein thrombi vary from 1mm in diameter to long tubular masses filing main veins. Small thrombi are found commonly in the pocket of deep vein valves. As thrombi become larger in diameter and length, they obstruct the veins, the resulting inflammatory process can destroy the valves of the veins; thus; venous insufficiency and postphlebitic syndrome are initiated. Newly formed thrombi may become pulmonary emboli. Probably 24 to 48 hours after formation, thrombi undergo lysis or become organized and adhere to the vessel wall. Lysis diminishes the risk of embolization. Pulmonary emboli, most of which start as thrombi in the large deep veins of the leg, are an acute and potentially lethal complication of DVT. Venous thrombosis is the process of clot (thrombus) formation within veins. Although this can occur in any venous system, the predominant clinical events occur in the vessels of the leg, giving rise to deep vein thrombosis, or in the lungs, resulting in a pulmonary embolus (PE). [J56] In fact, about 90% of DVT are of the ascending type. The potential for embolism depends on the speed and the extent of the dynamic, ascending clot growing process. Almost all clinical PE originate from distal DVT. Only the remaining 10% are derived from clots without connection to the lower leg veins (e.g. isolated iliac vein thrombosis, transfascial great or small saphenous vein thrombosis, subclavian vein thrombosis, or catheter-related thrombosis). [J58] Damage to the epithelial cell lining of the blood vessel is one of the extrinsic factors triggering the clotting cascade. The damaged endothelium attempts to maintain vascular integrity by adhesion and aggregation of platelets. As the clotting cascade continues, the final step is the formation of thrombin, which leads to the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin and the formation of a fibrin clot. (Arcangelo Peterson, 2006) (from K84, J40: Arcangelo) Abnormal blood clots that adhere to the vessel wall are known as thrombi. These are composed of blood cells, platelets, and fibrin. Arterial thrombi are composed mainly of platelet aggregates and fibrin. Venous thrombi are composed of mainly red blood cells. The difference in composition is caused by the conditions in which the thrombus forms. In the artery, the blood flow is high in comparison with the low flow conditions in the vein. The thrombus may become large enough to interfere with blood flow within the vein or artery. (Mansen McCance, 2002) (from K85, J40: Mansen) If the thrombus detaches from the vessel wall, it becomes an embolus. This mobile clot travels thought the circulation until it lodges in a blood vessel that is smaller than the clot. Distal to this point, blood flow is blocked and tissues or organs are deprived of oxygen and nutrition. (Mansen McCance, 2002). The signs and symptoms associated with an embolus depend on the vein or artery where th clot becomes lodged. (from K85, J40: Mansen) In 1856, Virchow described the factors that predispose to venous thrombosis, including stasis, vascular damage, and hypercoagulability. These three factors are referred to as Virchows triad. Stasis of blood may occur because of immobility, age, obesity, or disease processes. Trauma (including surgery), intravenous (IV) cannulation, medications, and toxins are some of the many sources that may precipitate vascular damage. Hypercoagulability of the blood may be caused by various disease processes and medications. (Mansen McCance, 2002) (from K85, J40: Mansen) Why focus on DVT rather than PE and VTE? A high proportion of patients with DVT also have subclinical PE. [K15, from J45:14] Most of the PE results from DVT (please find literature to support) Since lower limb DVT is the major origin of PE, and the characteristic of prolong bed rest of stroke, this literature review will mainly focus on the DVT at lower limbs. Approximately two thirds of these are below-knee DVTs, in contrast to unselected (nonstroke) patients presenting with symptomatic DVT, in whom the majority are proximal. [J43] Most studies show that PE seems to be much more common in patients with proximal and symptomatic DVT. [K41, from J46:1] Clinical symptoms of DVT were developed by six patients (oedema or pain of the lower extremity, no cases of PE). (out of 28, =21.4%) (J48s result) Why stroke patient easy to have DVT The general stroke population is at risk for DVT because of the following factors. First, there is an alteration in blood flow due to weakness in the lower limb and a resulting hypercoagulable state related to changes in the blood. Second, vessel wall intimal injury occurs related to changes in blood and blood flow. Stroke patients may also have similar symptoms associated with DVT, such as swelling and Homans sign, that may be misinterpreted as being related to the stroke. [J50] Stroke patients are often bed-ridden, especially during the acute phase, because of paresis. [J50] Most of the stroke patients are elderly. (age > ), while aging is a significant factors of the occurrence of DVT. Patients with stroke are at particular risk for developing deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) because of limb paralysis, prolonged bed rest, and increased prothrombotic activity. [J45 (also code at J51)] Sioson et al. [46] reported 19 DVT events in the paretic limb, nine bilateral events and four contralateral in 32 patients prospectively followed. (K49 from J46:46) Why important to prevent WHO estimates that 15 million people have a stroke every year, and this number is rising. (K91, from J39:2) Venous thromboembolism is a common but preventable complication of acute ischaemic stroke, and is associated with increased mortality and long-term morbidity and substantial health-care costs for its management. (K92, from J39:6) Without venous thromboembolism prophylaxis, up to 75% of patients with hemiplegia after stroke develop deep vein thrombosis and 20% develop pulmonary embolism, (K93, from J39:8) which is fatal in 1-2% of patients with acute ischaemic stroke and causes up to 25% of early deaths after strokes. (K94, from J39:9) low molecular weight heparin and unfractionated heparin are therefore recommended in guidelines from expert consensus groups.10-14 (K95, from J39:10-14) The best treatment for VTE is prevention. [J34] Cause preventable death [J06] Deep venous thromboembolism (DVT) is an important health issue in the hospitalized patients that leads to increased length of stay, morbidity, and mortality. [J50] Early detection of DVT is important because of the risk of pulmonary embolism and its potentially fatal consequences. However, it is well known that clinical features of DVT and PE are notoriously nonspecific. [J09] Despite improvements in prevention (SPARCL 2006), little progress has been made in treating stroke with specific interventions once it has occurred. (K72, from J44) the occurrence of venous thromboembolism was about two-fold higher in patients with an NIHSS score of 14 or more than in those with a score less than 14 (in line with previous studies25) (K99, from J39:25 + J39self) Patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) or ischemic stroke are at high risk for development of venous thromboembolism (VTE). (K103, from J29:1) In comparison to patients with ischemic stroke, the risk for VTE is higher in the hemorrhagic stroke population. (K104, from J29:2) Without preventative measures, 53% and 16% of immobilized patients develop deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE), respectively, in this population. (K105, from J29:3) One study detected DVT in 40% of patients with ICH within 2 weeks and 1.9% of those patients had a PE.4 (K106, from J29:4) Development of VTE in the patient with ICH adds further detrimental complications to an already lethal disease with a 1-month case-fatality rate of 35% to 52%.5 (K107, from J29:5) DVT also prolongs the length of hospital stays, delays rehabilitation programs, and introduces a potential risk for PE. (K108, from J29:6) DVT prolongs hospitalization and increases healthcare costs. [J01] DVT is the pathophysiological precursor of pulmonary embolism (PE). However, half of the DVT cases were asymptomatic. [J01, K1 from J37:18, J37,J27]. Approximately one third of patients with symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) manifest pulmonary embolism (PE), whereas two thirds manifest deep vein thrombosis (DVT) alone. Moreover, death occurs in 6% of DVT cases and 12% of PE cases within 1 month of diagnosis. [J46, J27] Clinically apparent DVT was reported in 1.7% to 5.0% of patients with stroke. Subclinical DVT occurred in 28% to 73% of patients with stroke, usually in the paralyzed limb. [J45] The frequency of asymptomatic PE in patients with DVT to be 40%. [J50] Prevention of VTE is highly effective in lowering the morbidity and mortality rate of stroke patients since PE accounts for up to 25% of post-stroke early deaths. [J43] Bounds JV, Wiebers DO, Whisnant JP, Okazaki H: Mechanisms and timing of deaths from cerebral infarction. Stroke 1981, 12:474-477.The rate of PE is likely to be underestimated because they are not routinely screened for, and autopsies are rarely performed. Fifty percent of patients who die following an acute stroke showed evidence of PE on autopsy. [K68, from J13:7] The annual incidence of DVT in the general population is estimated to be about 1 per 1000 (8), however, it should be noted that much of the published data are derived from patients who present with symptoms at medical institutions. Diagnosis of DVT has traditionally been based on clinical presentation, however, evidence from postmortem studies indicates that a substantial proportion of VTE cases are asymptomatic. [K10 from J55] Clinically apparent DVT confirmed on investigation is less common but DVTs may not be recognised and may still cause important complications. Pulmonary embolism (PE) is an important cause of preventable death after stroke [K67, from J13:4]

Friday, October 25, 2019

Alzheimers Disease: What are we Forgetting? Essay -- Alzheimers Dise

Alzheimer's Disease: What are we Forgetting? Alzheimer's disease (pronounced Alz'-hi-merz) is a progressive, degenerative disease that affects the brain and results in impaired memory, thinking and behavior. It was first described by Dr. Alois Alzheimer in 1906 and has been diagnosed in millions of people to this day (1). This disease results, ultimately, in the destruction of the brain and brings new meaning and insights into just how much brain may equal behavior. Alzheimers is a degenerative disease that usually begins gradually, causing a person to have memory lapses in both basic knowledge and simple tasks (7). Alzheimers disease causes the formation of abnormal structures in the brain called plaques and tangles (particularly causatory are NFTs- neurofibrillary tangles) (5). As they accumulate in affected individuals, nerve cell connections are reduced. Some initial symptoms are loss of job skills, difficulty with familiar tasks, language problems, unawareness of time and place, lack of good judgment, problems with abstract thinking, misplacing things, and dramatic changes in personality (1). The speed with which the disease progresses can vary, but ultimately, as it destroys brain cells, causes confusion, personality and behavior changes and impaired judgment so severe that the patient may not seem to be the same person. Communication becomes difficult for the patient as they struggle to find words, finish thoughts or follow directions. So me experts classify the disease by stage (early, middle and late). But specific behaviors and how long they last vary greatly, even within each stage of the disease. Eventually, most people with Alzheimers become unable to care for themselves (1). The symptomology here is very dif... ...hem. The person is no longer "there", yet their body can be seen plainly. So who are we? Flesh? Brain? Something else that our brain and flesh create together? Probably. Those afflicted with Alzheimer's experience the ultimate brain shutdown. Their brains are destroyed by a currently unstoppable disease; connections are lost. And in the process of losing their minds, they lose themselves. WWW Sources 1)Alzheimer's Association 2) 3)Alzheimer's Disease Review 4)Alzheimer Research Forum 5)Alzheimer starting point? 6)Alzheimer Web 7)The Health Connection

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Retirement plans

Abstract A good retirement plan should be one that would provide retirees with the most benefits. These benefits should ideally provide tax advantages. Tax savings can be realized in the short run or in the long run depending on the type of scheme selected. It should also provide a secure investment that offers attractive returns. This paper looks into the retirement programs highlighting the advantages of these schemes to different players. This paper opines that despite the few disadvantages of these schemes, They provide an great avenue through which employees can plan their futur. Definition These are a programs established by employer or employee or both aimed at providing the retirees with a source of income when they are no longer in employment. Retirement plans basically are set up as a form of savings plan to cater for the future i.e. by providing some form of income when a person has retired. Types of retirement plans There are several retirement plans available in the market today. The employees should therefore select a plan that meets their expectation and suits their needs. Below is a list and explanation of some of the available retirement plans. i) Individual Retirement Accounts plans It is one of the simplest retirement programs that can be set by an individual. It is also worthwhile to note that IRAs be established by employers. Therefore IRAs can be established with little employers’ involvement to those that they establish and contribute to the scheme. The retirement benefits depend on the contributions and subsequently the income earned by these funds. There are four IRA plans Payroll Deduction IRA- formed by the employee either under traditional or Roth IRA in conjunction with a financial institution. The financial institution (banks, insurance companies) then deducts the contributions towards the plan under the authority of the employee. Traditional IRA contributions are partly or wholly tax deductible and therefore present tax savings to the employee. The other advantage is that the earnings on the plan are not taxed unless distributed. The same applies to the contributions to the plan. Roth IRA deductions are not tax deductible and also distributions are not part of the income (Internal Revenue Service 2008) Salary Reduction Simplified Employee Pension Plan (SARSEP) – It is a simple plan that involves salary reduction agreement which enables the employers to contribute to the IRAs set by them and also to the employees IRAs. There contributions are subject to a limit. Simplified Employee Pension Plan (SEP)-Employers contribute towards the plan Savings Incentive Match Plan for Employees (SIMPLE IRA) – employers make contributions towards their own retirement plan and also that of the employees. The employees reduce their salaries with the employers making similar contributions. ii) IRC 401 (K) Plans. Can involve employees delaying their salaries and these money is taken to 401(k) plan supported by their employers. The deferred salary is not taxed unless distributed. The benefit of having a 401(k) plan is that one can have other plans as well The employee/employer contribution is subject to a limit with withdrawals being permitted but subject to taxes. iii) TRC 403(b)-Tax sheltered Annuity Plans This plan are operated by public schools and certain tax exempt organizations. This plan is same as 401(k) in the sense that contributions are in form of salary delays with the employers sponsoring the plan. The potential benefits of this plan are that the contributions and earnings on retirement are tax deferred with annuities being carried by the employee on retirement or change of employers (IRS: 2008) iv) IRC 457(b) Deferred Compensation Plans Established by state or local government or tax exempt organization under IRA (501(c). Employees or employers contribute to the plan through salary reductions up to a certain set limit under IRC 402(g) These plans can be eligible under IRC 457 (b) or illegible under IRC 457(f). Eligible plan allows tax deferral on contributions and earnings on the retirement funds (Ryterband &Alpem: 2005) v) Designated Roth Accounts in 401(k) or 403(b) plans 401(k) and 403(b) can be designated as Roth plans since 2006. These plans are allowed under Code section 402 A added by the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act 2001. Designated Roth contributions are included in the gross income and are also elective. A designated Roth account is where with contributions is made with separate accounting of contributions, gains and losses being maintained (IRS 2008) Designated Roth contributions are subject to limit with employee and employers contributing up to certain determinable limit. Advantages and Disadvantages of good retirement plan As discussed above, there are different types of retirement plans that employees and employers can chose from. The plan to be selected should provide the most benefits to both the employer and employee and most importantly suit the needs of both the employee and employers (Scotto, D., J et al: 2008) Therefore, in discussing the advantages and disadvantages of retirement plans, it important to approach it from the employees and employers point view. Advantages-Employees Tax saving-A good retirement plan should be able to provide the most tax savings and advantages. Tax advantages can be in the form of tax-exempt and tax deferrals. A good number of retirement plans offer these tax advantages and therefore employees and employers can select a plan that meets their needs (Maddock J, 2007) The tax savings can be realized in the short run or in the long run depending on the type of scheme selected. Many investment options and opportunities-The contributions (funding) to the retirement plan are invested in various investment options. A good retirement plan should therefore put the money in investments that offer attractive returns while at the same time safeguarding the investor’s money. Retirement plans are long term in nature and therefore the contributions should be invested in the long term also (Perlinger Financial Services: 2008) Provides a ‘nest egg’-Retirement plans provide employees with an opportunity to slowly but constantly contribute towards their retirement. The benefit of this arrangement is that it does not strain the employees financially and thus they are able to make contribution which they are comfortable with. All these contributions are invested in stocks, bonds and other investment opportunities which earn interest and appreciate in value and therefore the retirement benefits will accumulate and become substantial upon retirement. Employer contributions-Contribution to the retirement benefits plan can be by an individual or by the company or both depending on the type of plan. A good retirement benefit plan should allow both contribution of employee and employer. The employer contributions are usually elective in nature. Contributions by both employer and employee ensure that the fund accumulates faster and thus on retirement the fund will be huge. Performance of the fund-The contributors to the retirement scheme should be able to monitor the performance of the fund. A good retirement benefits plan should provide regular updates on the performance of the fund so that any surplus or deficit can be appropriately dealt with. Advantages- Employer Employee retention-A good retirement plan can act as an incentive to the employees and also attract better employees. The company can retain its top employees by offering them a good retirement scheme and since it is for the long term, the company is able to retain them. The company is also able to attract employees who are better qualified in terms of experience and skills and thus the company will benefit (Business Owners Toolkit: 2008) Financial security of employees-Employees is able to perform optimally if they know that their financial future is guaranteed.   A retirement benefit plan that provides this perceived financial security is good Employee morale-Since most pension schemes are based on the salary earned by the employee, a good retirement plan therefore, serves to motivate and encourage all employees to work hard and hence earn more wages. Higher salaries subsequently means ‘handsome’ retirement package and this enhances staff morale. Tax savings-The contributions to the retirement scheme in most plans is tax allowable and this provides the company with the most tax efficient way of rewarding its employees. The contributions are deducted when calculating the taxable income. Reduced recruitment costs-As seen above, a good retirement plan helps the company retain most of its employees and therefore the costs associated with recruitment and replacing the employees who left the company is minimized (Perlinger Financial Services:2008) Disadvantages of retirement plans Despite all the numerous advantages of setting up a retirement plan, there are several disadvantages associated with it. Some of these are discussed below. Some of the retirement plans are time consuming, expensive and complex to set up. The result of this is that the company incurs extra expenses and thereby squeezing the profit margins. The complexities in establishing the plan will also present more costs apart from being time consuming (Business Owners Toolkit: 2008) The operations of the retirement plan needs professional expertise e.g. that of actuaries and accountant. These professionals offer their services at a fee which is usually expensive. The administrative costs of running a retirement plan may pose a challenge to the company in terms of extra costs. Early retirement by the employee could reduce the amount received. This in essence means that the employee has to work his full employment term in order to receive all his retirement benefits. This could mean being trapped in employment even if one is not comfortable. Joining a retirement plan late on in one’s employment i.e. when there are a few years till retirement may not accumulate a large amount enough to sustain the retiree. Therefore the retirement plan will not improve the financial security of the employee (Scotto, D., J et al: 2008) In some of the retirement plans, the contributor has no role in deciding where to invest the fund’s money. This means that the money could be invested in assets that are not in line with one’s investment strategies. This essentially means that the contributor has no control of his money. Employees are responsible for ensuring that they have enough savings for their retirement in some of the plans. This means that the employee is the one in charge of all the investment assets and therefore bears the responsibility of any losses incurred by these investments. Reference: Maddock, J (2007) Advantages of Offering a Pension Plan to Your Employees: Retrieved On 29/1/2009 Perlinger Financial Services Ltd (2008) Pension Plans: Retrieved on 29/1/2008 Internal Revenue Service (2008) Types of Retirement Plans: Retrieved On 29/1/2008 Business Owners Toolkit (2008) Pros and Cons of Retirement Plans: Retrieved On 29/1/2008 From Scotto, D., J.   Maglio, V., T. & Maglio, M. (2008) Choosing a retirement plan that meets the needs of employees and employer: Retrieved on 29/1/2008 from Retrieved On From Chang RuthenBerg and Long Pc (2003) Types of Retirement Plans retrieved on 29/1/2008 from  Ã‚ Ryterand, D., J. & L. Alpem, R., L. (2005). The Hand Book of Employee Benefits: Design Funding and Administration, section 457, Deferred compensation plans 6th Edition (NY) Mc Graw-Hill Professional.         

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Empowerment of Local Communities for Sustainable Tourism Essay

Tourism, recognized as one of the most economically significant industries in the world has recently perceived emerging needs for forming sustainable planning for tourism management and development. According to Murphy (1985) and Perez – Salom (2001) in order to achieving desired sustainability certain alternations via better planning and management in the tourism activity patterns and pertaining products are necessary to decrease the environmental and social impacts. Thus researchers have emphasized the significance of stakeholder collaboration and participation in the decision making process and their involvement in each stage of tourism management to achieve long lasting sustainability (Teo 2002, Garrod 2003, Azman 1999). According to Branwell and Lane (2000) the dynamic, diffuse and fragmented manner of tourism development was identified long time ago. However the diversified ways to solve problems associated with fragmentation was not achieved despite such identification (Hall 2003). Some of the challenges faced in implementing these strategies lie in the conflicting public policies enacted by respective governments which are engaged in tourism planning, management and development. Many tourism related public policies are ensnared in an energetic continuation processes with governments struggling to perceive the multitude of implications in tourism and their arbitration ways ( Caffyn & Jobbins 2003). As declared by Scheyvens in 2003 to achieve voluntary participation in desired levels for the planning processes one important precursor should be the empowerment of stakeholders in the community by involving them in the tourism development process. In the absence of empowerment in community and local levels, predictably national endeavors to develop specific identified destinations will not meet with successful results says Sofield (2003). According to Burns in 2004 it has also been established that a top to down attitude in strategic tourism planning will not stimulate or encourage stake holder participation and local commitment. Additionally according to Timothy (2000) the individual and state relationship has conventionally presented key level policy predicaments as many interest groups continue to seek government backing and funding in tourism development process. Therefore in this study major focus will be in determining the effectiveness of the statement made by Henkel & Stirrat (2001:168) to the effect of: â€Å"It is now difficult to find a development project that does not†¦claim to adopt a ‘participatory’ approach involving ‘bottom-up’ planning, acknowledging the importance of ‘indigenous’ knowledge and claiming to ‘empower’ local people† 2. Challenges of local participation in tourism planning In 2000 Hall advocated and emphasized the need in utilizing and developing a network thinking to critically analyze the involvement of public sector partnership and collaboration in tourism to develop sustainability and social capital. However, despite the many attractions of establishing a local community approach in tourism planning there are many challenges existing in the way such a process would be implemented and operated (Murphy 1988). These challenges include the manner in which to foster local participation for tourism planning and management, initiating and maintaining cooperation between public and private sectors and identifying implementation ways for local participation in tourism planning. Therefore it is vital to enhance the assimilation of management approaches in tourism planning. 3. Effective tourism planning for a sustainable development According to Hall (2003), tourism is an important concern for industry and governments as well as communities in terms of augmenting number of travelers, enhancing revenues and impacts for the communities in the tourist destinations. Tourism has the ability of impacting on both micro and macro environments and thus has been recognized as a paradoxical practice situation when adverse reactions occur where tourism can destroy tourism (Mihalic 2003). When ever tourism is not planned or managed efficiently it contains the capacity to destroy its own platform on which the tourism is based. In 1997, McVetty identified different tourism planning traditions and approaches which are commonly referred to day as following: Booster approach – concentrates on motivating and enhancing the tourist frequency. Commercial approach – concentrates on profit maximization Economic approach – focus on the resulting economic values generated via tourism related employment. Environmental approach – focus on the ecological conservation for tourist destinations Community based approach – concentrates on minimum impact and encouragement of involvement and control by local participation in tourism Integrated approach – the social development factor in tourism which takes in to account social mobilization and local participation to maximize tourism contribution towards local communities. In an integrated tourism planning approach it will take in to account a process that endeavor to bring together each individual stakeholder with their variety of experiences and attitudes. Within such a planning process, there is an opportunity for stakeholders to cooperate in arriving at temporary agreements in matters of environmental conservation, biodiversity and social welfare (Burns 2004). It has been established that this approach will be particularly beneficial for developing countries as it provides an alternative tourism approach with a people centered attitude. A variety of tourism management models were developed in the past with the rapid growth in recreation and tourism in natural destinations ( Hall 2003, Gunn & Turgut 2002). However according to McArthur (2000) the TOMM, Tourism Optimization and Management Model developed in Australia is the most successful tool introduced so far as other models failed to establish adequate stakeholder support for implementing and operating plans on a sustainable period to confirm their merits. The problem with these models was their inability to adjust to the diverse stakeholder participants and the absence of cooperative partnership for identifying standards and indicators. 4. Empowerment of local participants for effective tourism planning In 1997 France defined empowerment as a process in which households, local groups, individuals, communities, nations and regions all shape their lives along with the type of society in which they habitat. According to Boog in 2003 the recent past has used this term as a sense of group and collective empowerment. Empowerment contain diverse concepts such as facilitating relationships between individuals, contribution of power between social cultural, political domains says O’Neal & O’Neal (2003). For tourism planning the terms empowerment is regarded as a social development process encouraging and facilitating a respondent to responsive tourism attitude (Ritchie 1993). According to Sofield a vital component embedded in the process of empowerment is the application of decisions making model. Empowerment of local participants in the tourism industry represents multidimensional characteristics according to Scheyvens in 2002 who detailed them as following: Economic empowerment with lasting financial awards for the local participants Physiological empowerment for improving self esteem, pride within the local culture for their knowledge and respective resources. Social empowerment where a community’s integrity is enhanced and sustained via the tourism development process Political empowerment is a platform of democracy where people from all walks of life are invited in the participatory process and allowed to voice opinions and concerns. In 1993 Jenkins argued that local participants would express difficulties in perceiving the complicated aspects related to planning and managing representativeness in the tourism development process. He further stated that the decision making process which would need considerable time and cost may result in a lack of interest within the local communities. Therefore in order to overcome this situation and encourage local community participation in tourism management the issue of collaboration is regarded as a suitable management strategy to encourage participation. 5. Collaboration management between stakeholders and community As declared by Bramwell & Lane in 2000, it is widely acknowledge the importance in involving the many stakeholders in the process of tourism planning and management. The concept has led to the use of many collaborative partnerships and arrangements as a tool or technique with the intention of combining a range of interests to implement and develop pertaining tourism policies. To achieve successfully inclusive tourism development an accomplishment of cooperation within all planning sectors in each scale is an important concept. A significant advantage of such collaboration management is that relevant tourist destinations and respective organizations have the ability of gaining competitive advantages via a process of combining expertise, knowledge, knowhow, capital and various other resources belonging to the multi stakeholders says Kotler, Haider, & Rein (1993). Such a collaboration attempt within stakeholders can result in effective negotiations, dialogues and formulation of a community acceptable proposal in which sustainable tourism can be developed. According to Murphy (1988) the broadly based tourism policies resulting from such management policy integrations can create democratic empowerment, operational advantages, impartiality and finally a greatly enhanced tourism product to the world. Therefore it is vital to regard the entire planning process from a social phenomenon perspective where empowerment of local participants in the decision making process is given high priority. Moreover, collaboration and participation should be considered as important components of social capital that can be enriched via community complexity. 6. Recent Examples of stakeholder participation in tourism In the past clear evidence were seen of a range of individuals and organizations operating on innovative local participation led approaches in tourism management and development. Some of these examples are the Indonesian Andaman Discoveries, the North Andaman Tsunami relief flagship project which has initiated more than 120 projects in identified Tsunami affected communities. This flagship project was instrumental for aiding a large number of local communities to develop a local participatory tourism process successfully and as a result have also developed many supporting resources such as local crafts, traditional music promotions etc. The community tourism project initiated in Scotland Inverclyde tourism group has secured their funding through many resources including the national lottery. The project has achieved tremendous success through a capacity building process as a result of community involvement and partnership working. There are also visible examples to indicate the drawbacks of this concept. As declared by Manyara et al (2006) there are many obstacles in the process of developing indigenous SMTE, small and medium tourism enterprises due to constraints such as accessibility to global markets, deficiency in numeracy and literacy, access to capital and other resources, sector specific skills and insufficient government backing. Their report which concentrated in the local community participation of Kenya tourism also states that through proper legislative frameworks and policies a community based enterprise stand to benefit with better development potential and also benefit the SMTE in the longer term. Solutions cited in this report to make the Kenya tourism project successful was to integrate the requirements of allowing initiatives to be community owned, make communities fully involved in the process of tourism development and management and that these local communities should remain as the main beneficiaries of such initiatives. 7. Conclusion As declared by Mitchell and Reid in 2000 it could be stated in summary that local participation involvement in tourism management and development can be regarded as a simple categorical term defining ‘citizen power’. Within the stage of planning the research and study of social capital and social sensitivity in relation to tourism can provide great insights to the level of social impact alleviation arising from tourism on a local community through a process of relevant and strategic planning (Hall 2003). An important aspect is to consider is integrative planning to ensure minimal adverse impacts, environmental conservation, acceptance of tourism in general and overall community growth (Burns 2004). Equally it is important to consider planning with least amount of conflicts and to foster participation of local communities via controlling resources and tourism planning related decision making. The streamlining of a local community as a tourism product will aid the diversification of tourism offerings and also facilitate a meaningful economic participation in the tourism sector by the local communities. It will also generate many tourism related benefits that exceeds the primary tourism areas within a country. The research study concludes that while there is much written on this subject mainly at a conceptual level, it is vital that proper frameworks and guidelines are established for those communities searching for optimum practices and perceiving the associated benefits of tourism within the community body. It is also evident that establishing a strictly rigid guideline set will not do much to advance a sustainable tourism within the local community agenda. References Azman, A. (1999). Local participation of ecotourism the case of Bruinei ‘ Merinbum Heritage Park. Borneo Review, 10(1), 51-69. Bramwell, B. , & Lane, B. (Eds. ). (2000). Collaboration and partnerships in tourism planning. U. K: Channel View Publications. Burns, P. M. (2004). Tourism planning: A third way? Annals of Tourism Research, 31(1), 24- 43. France, L. (Ed. ). (1997). The role of government. London: Earthscan. Garrod, B. (2003). Local participation in the planning and management of ecotourism: A revised model approach. Journal of Ecotourism, 2(1), 33-52. Gunn, C. A. , & Turgut, V. (2002). Tourism planning: Basic, concepts, cases. New York: Routledge. Hall, C. M. (2000). Rethinking collaboration and partnership: A public policy perspective. In B. Bramwell & B. Lane (Eds. ), Tourism collaboration and partnerships: Politics, practice and sustainability. U. K: Channel View Publications. Hall, C. M. (2003). Politics and place: An analysis of power in tourism communities. In S. Singh, D. J. Timothy & R. K. Dowling (Eds. ), Tourism in destination communities. U. K: CABI Publishing. Jenkins, J. (1993). Tourism policy in rural New South Wales – Policy and research priorities. Geo Journal, 29(3), 281-290. Jones, E & Manyara G (2007). Community? based Tourism Enterprises Development in Kenya: An Exploration of Their Potential as Avenues of Poverty Reduction. Journal of Sustainable Tourism. Vol. 15, No. 6, 2007. Welsh School of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure Management, University of Wales Institute, Cardiff, UK Kotler, P. , Haider, D. H. , & Rein, I. (1993). Marketing places: Attracting investment, industry, and tourism to cities, states, and nations. New York: Free Press. McArthur, S. (Ed. ). (2000). Beyond carrying capacity – Introducing A model to monitor and manage visitor activities in forests. Wellingford, U. K: CABI Publishing. McVetty, D. (1997). Segmenting heritage tourism party – Visits on Dunedin’s Otago Peninsula: A strategic approach. Unpublished Master of Tourism thesis, University of Otago, Dunlin, New Zealand. Mitchell, R. E. , & Reid, D. G. (2000). Community integration: Island tourism in Peru. Annals of Tourism Research, 28(1), 113-139. Mihalic, T. (2003). Economic instruments of environmental tourism policy derived from environmental theories. In R. K. Dowling & D. A. Fennel (Eds. ), Ecotourism policy and planning. London: CABI International. Murphy, P. E. (1988). Community driven tourism planning. Tourism Management, 9(2), 96- 104. O’Neal, G. S. , & O’Neal, R. A. (2003). Community development in the USA: An empowerment zone example. Community Development Journal, 38(2), 120-129. Perez-Salom, J. (2001). Sustainable tourism: Emerging global and regional regulation. Georgetown International Environment Law Review, 13(4), 801-837. Ritchie, J. R. (1993). Tourism research: Policy and managerial priorities for the 1990s and beyond. In D. G. Pearce & R. W. Butler (Eds. ), Tourism research and critiques and challenges. London: Routledge. Scheyvens, R. (2002). Tourism for development: Empowering communities. Singapore: Pearson Education Asia Pte. Ltd. Scheyvens, R. (2003). Local involvement in managing tourism. In S. Singh, D. J. Timothy & R. K. Dowling (Eds.), Tourism in destination communities. U. K: CABI Publishing. Sofield, T. H. B. (2003). Empowerment for sustainable tourism development (Vol. Tourism Social Science Series). London: Pergamon. Teo, P. (2002). Striking a balance for sustainable tourism: Implication of the discourse on globalization. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 10(6), 459-474. Timothy, D. J. (2000). Cross-border partnership in tourism resource management: International parks along the US-Canada border. In B. Bramwell & B. Lane (Eds. ), Tourism collaboration and partnerships: Politics, practice and sustainability. U. K: Channel View Publications.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

biology and human evolution essays

biology and human evolution essays The earliest human life form can be traced back more than 3.5 billion years ago. Humans are said to be descendants of a single celled ancestor. Although they are different in size and shape all basic functions are alike. The more complex the organization of the cell became the more successful and developed it became. As these single celled organisms developed they became known as pre-humans. We share many characteristics with these pre-humans. Some of these characteristics include the masters of heredity DNA and RNA as well as proteins composed of amino acids, membranes or bound cells and lastly controlled cell division or mitosis, key to the daughter cells. The diversity of kingdoms is arranged into kingdoms that classify organisms from simple to complex. The traditional five kingdoms are Prokaryote, Protoctista, Fungi, Plantae, and Anamalia. Prokaryote is a bacterium that lacks nuclear membrane. Protoctista is a heterogeneous grouping that combines a great diversity of forms. Fungi are known for being important agents of composition they include yeast and mushroom. Plantae, are categorized as plants that use sunlight to convert to energy. Lastly Anamalia, Anamalial members are multicellular and fully mobile, they obtain their nutrients from other living things. Humans are hierarchically classified into a series of increasingly specific groups. They range from the Kingdom Animalia to the Genus Homo, the Homo Sapiens appears to be its only living representative Over a considerably large span of geological time life on earth has changed drastically. Humans and their close relatives are the most recent arrivals in the Tertiary period. The periods range Precambrian which was over 56 million years ago to Quaternary which was 1.8 million years ago to present. In this chart you will be able to see all periods ranging from Precambrian to Quaternary. (MILLIONS OF YEARS) SOME IMPORTANT EVENTS IN THE HISTORY OF LIFE 65 Apelik...

Monday, October 21, 2019

The 31 Critical ACT Math Formulas You MUST Know

The 31 Critical ACT Math Formulas You MUST Know SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips The two biggest challenges of ACT Math are the time crunch- the math test has 60 questions in 60 minutes!- and the fact that the test doesn’t provide you with any formulas. All the formulas and math knowledge for the ACT comes from what you’ve learned and memorized. In this complete list of critical formulas you'll need on the ACT, I'll lay out every formula you must have memorized before test day, as well as explanations for how to use them and what they mean. I'll also show you which formulas you should prioritize memorizing (the ones that are needed for multiple questions) and which ones you should memorize only when you've got everything else nailed down tight. Already Feeling Overwhelmed? Does the prospect of memorizing a bunch of formulas make you want to run for the hills? We've all been there, but don't throw in the towel just yet! The good news about the ACT is that it is designed to give all test-takers a chance to succeed. Many of you will already be familiar with most of these formulas from your math classes. The formulas that show up on the test the most will also be most familiar to you. Formulas that are only needed for one or two questions on the test will be least familiar to you. For example, the equation of a circle and logarithm formulas only ever show up as one question on most ACT math tests. If you’re going for every point, go ahead and memorize them. But if you feel overwhelmed with formula lists, don’t worry about it- it’s only one question. So let’s look at all the formulas you absolutely must know before test day (as well as one or two that you can figure out yourself instead of memorizing yet another formula). Algebra Linear Equations Functions There will be at least five to six questions on linear equations and functions on every ACT test, so this is a very important section to know. Slope Slope is the measure of how a line changes. It’s expressed as: the change along the y-axis/the change along the x-axis, or $\rise/\run$. Given two points, $A(x_1,y_1)$, $B(x_2,y_2)$, find the slope of the line that connects them: $$(y_2 - y_1)/(x_2 - x_1)$$ Slope-Intercept Form A linear equation is written as $y=mx+b$ m is the slope and b is the y-intercept (the point of the line that crosses the y-axis) A line that passes through the origin (y-axis at 0), is written as $y=mx$ If you get an equation that is NOT written this way (i.e. $mx−y=b$), re-write it into $y=mx+b$ Midpoint Formula Given two points, $A(x_1,y_1)$, $B(x_2,y_2)$, find the midpoint of the line that connects them: $$((x_1 + x_2)/2, (y_1 + y_2)/2)$$ Good to Know Distance Formula Find the distance between the two points $$√{(x_2 - x_1)^2 + (y_2 - y_1)^2}$$ You don’t actually need this formula, as you can simply graph your points and then create a right triangle from them. The distance will be the hypotenuse, which you can find via the pythagorean theorem Logarithms There will usually only be one question on the test involving logarithms. If you’re worried about having to memorize too many formulas, don’t worry about logs unless you’re trying for a perfect score. $log_bx$ asks â€Å"to what power does b have to be raised to result in x?† Most of the time on the ACT, you’ll just need to know how to re-write logs $$log_bx=y = b^y=x$$ $$log_bxy=log_bx+log_by$$ $$log_b{x/y} = log_bx - log_by$$ Statistics and Probability Averages The average is the same thing as the mean Find the average/mean of a set of terms (numbers) $$\Mean = {\sum\of\the\terms}/{\the\number(\amount)\of\different\terms}$$ Find the average speed $$\Speed = {\total\distance}/{\total\time}$$ May the odds be ever in your favor. Probabilities Probability is a representation of the odds of something happening. A probability of 1 is guaranteed to happen. A probability of 0 will never happen. $${\Probabilityâ€Å'\ofâ€Å'\anâ€Å'\outcomeâ€Å'\happening}={\numberâ€Å'\ofâ€Å'\desiredâ€Å'\outcomes}/{\total\number\of\possible\outcomes}$$ Probability of two independent outcomes both happening is $$\Probabilityâ€Å'\ofâ€Å'\eventâ€Å'\A*\probabilityâ€Å'\ofâ€Å'\event\B$$ e.g., Event A has a probability of $1/4$ and event B has a probability of $1/8$. The probability of both events happening is: $1/4 * 1/8 = 1/32$. There is a 1 in 32 chance of both events A and event B happening. Combinations The possible amount of different combinations of a number of different elements A â€Å"combination† means the order of the elements doesn’t matter (i.e. a fish entree and a diet soda is the same thing as a diet soda and a fish entree) Possible combinations = number of element A * number of element B * number of element C†¦. e.g. In a cafeteria, there are 3 different dessert options, 2 different entree options, and 4 drink options. How many different lunch combinations are possible, using one drink, one, dessert, and one entree? The total combinations possible = 3 * 2 * 4 = 24 Percentages Find x percent of a given number n $$n(x/100)$$ Find out what percent a number n is of another number m $$(100n)/m$$ Find out what number n is x percent of $$(100n)/x$$ The ACT is a marathon. Remember to take a break sometimes and enjoy the good things in life. Puppies make everything better. Geometry Rectangles Area $$\Area=lw$$ l is the length of the rectangle w is the width of the rectangle Perimeter $$\Perimeter=2l+2w$$ Rectangular Solid Volume $$\Volume = lwh$$ h is the height of the figure Parallelogram An easy way to get the area of a parallelogram is to drop down two right angles for heights and transform it into a rectangle. Then solve for h using the pythagorean theorem Area $$\Area=lh$$ (This is the same as a rectangle’s lw. In this case the height is the equivalent of the width) Triangles Area $$\Area = {1/2}bh$$ b is the length of the base of triangle (the edge of one side) h is the height of the triangle The height is the same as a side of the 90 degree angle in a right triangle. For non-right triangles, the height will drop down through the interior of the triangle, as shown in the diagram. Pythagorean Theorem $$a^2 + b^2 = c^2$$ In a right triangle, the two smaller sides (a and b) are each squared. Their sum is the equal to the square of the hypotenuse (c, longest side of the triangle) Properties of Special Right Triangle: Isosceles Triangle An isosceles triangle has two sides that are equal in length and two equal angles opposite those sides. An isosceles right triangle always has a 90 degree angle and two 45 degree angles. The side lengths are determined by the formula: x, x, x√2, with the hypotenuse (side opposite 90 degrees) having a length of one of the smaller sides * √2. E.g., An isosceles right triangle may have side lengths of 12, 12, and 12√2. Properties of Special Right Triangle: 30, 60, 90 Degree Triangle A 30, 60, 90 triangle describes the degree measures of its three angles. The side lengths are determined by the formula: x, x√3, and 2x. The side opposite 30 degrees is the smallest, with a measurement of x. The side opposite 60 degrees is the middle length, with a measurement of x√3. The side opposite 90 degree is the hypotenuse, with a length of 2x. For example, a 30-60-90 triangle may have side lengths of 5, 5√3, and 10. Trapezoids Area Take the average of the length of the parallel sides and multiply that by the height. $$\Area = [(\parallel\side\a + \parallel\side\b)/2]h$$ Often, you are given enough information to drop down two 90 angles to make a rectangle and two right triangles. You’ll need this for the height anyway, so you can simply find the areas of each triangle and add it to the area of the rectangle, if you would rather not memorize the trapezoid formula. Trapezoids and the need for a trapezoid formula will be at most one question on the test. Keep this as a minimum priority if you're feeling overwhelmed. Circles Area $$\Area=Ï€r^2$$ Ï€ is a constant that can, for the purposes of the ACT, be written as 3.14 (or 3.14159) Especially useful to know if you don’t have a calculator that has a $Ï€$ feature or if you're not using a calculator on the test. r is the radius of the circle (any line drawn from the center point straight to the edge of the circle). Area of a Sector Given a radius and a degree measure of an arc from the center, find the area of that sector of the circle. Use the formula for the area multiplied by the angle of the arc divided by the total angle measure of the circle. $$Area\of\an\arc = (Ï€r^2)(\degree\measure\of\center\of\arc/360)$$ Circumference $$\Circumference=2Ï€r$$ or $$\Circumference=Ï€d$$ d is the diameter of the circle. It is a line that bisects the circle through the midpoint and touches two ends of the circle on opposite sides. It is twice the radius. Length of an Arc Given a radius and a degree measure of an arc from the center, find the length of the arc. Use the formula for the circumference multiplied by the angle of the arc divided by the total angle measure of the circle (360). $$\Circumference\of\an\arc = (2Ï€r)(\degree\measure\center\of\arc/360)$$ Example: A 60 degree arc has $1/6$ of the total circle's circumference because $60/360 = 1/6$ An alternative to memorizing the â€Å"formulas† for arcs is to just stop and think about arc circumferences and arc areas logically. If you know the formulas for the area/circumference of a circle and you know how many degrees are in a circle, put the two together. If the arc spans 90 degrees of the circle, it must be $1/4$th the total area/circumference of the circle, because $360/90 = 4$. If the arc is at a 45 degree angle, then it is $1/8$th the circle, because $360/45 = 8$. The concept is exactly the same as the formula, but it may help you to think of it this way instead of as a â€Å"formula† to memorize. Equation of a Circle Useful to get a quick point on the ACT, but don’t worry about memorizing it if you feel overwhelmed; it will only ever be worth one point. Given a radius and a center point of a circle $(h, k)$ $$(x - h)^2 + (y - k)^2 = r^2$$ Cylinder $$\Volume=Ï€r^2h$$ Trigonometry Almost all the trigonometry on the ACT can be boiled down to a few basic concepts SOH, CAH, TOA Sine, cosine, and tangent are graph functions The sine, cosine, or tangent of an angle (theta, written as ÃŽËœ) is found using the sides of a triangle according to the mnemonic device SOH, CAH, TOA. Sine - SOH $$\Sineâ€Å' ÃŽËœ = \opposite/\hypotenuse$$ Opposite = the side of the triangle directly opposite the angle ÃŽËœ Hypotenuse = the longest side of the triangle Sometimes the ACT will make you manipulate this equation by giving you the sine and the hypotenuse, but not the measure of the opposite side. Manipulate it as you would any algebraic equation: $Sine ÃŽËœ = \opposite/\hypotenuse$ = $\hypotenuse * \sine ÃŽËœ = \opposite$ Cosine - CAH $$\Cosine ÃŽËœ = \adjacent/\hypotenuse$$ Adjacent = the side of the triangle nearest the angle ÃŽËœ (that creates the angle) that is not the hypotenuse Hypotenuse = the longest side of the triangle Tangent - TOA $$\Tangentâ€Å' ÃŽËœ = \opposite/\adjacent$$ Opposite = the side of the triangle directly opposite the angle ÃŽËœ Adjacent = the side of the triangle nearest the angle ÃŽËœ (that creates the angle) that is not the hypotenuse Cosecant, Secant, Cotangent Cosecant is the reciprocal of sine $\Cosecantâ€Å' ÃŽËœ = \hypotenuse/\opposite$ Secant is the reciprocal of cosine $\Secantâ€Å' ÃŽËœ = \hypotenuse/\adjacent$ Cotangent is the reciprocal of tangent $\Cotangentâ€Å' ÃŽËœ = \adjacent/\opposite$ Useful Formulas to Know$$\Sin^2ÃŽËœ + \Cos^2ÃŽËœ = 1$$ $${\Sin ÃŽËœ}/{\Cos ÃŽËœ} = \Tan ÃŽËœ$$ Hurray! You've memorized your formulas. Now treat yo' self. But Keep in Mind Though these are all the formulas you should memorize to do well on the ACT math section, this list by no means covers all aspects of the mathematical knowledge you’ll need on the exam. For example, you’ll also need to know your exponent rules, how to FOIL, and how to solve for absolute values. To learn more about the general mathematical topics covered by the test, see our article on what's actually tested on the ACT math section. What's Next? Now that you know the critical formulas for the ACT, it might be time to check out our article on How to an Perfect Score on the ACT Math by a 36 ACT-Scorer. Don't know where to start?Look no further than our article onwhat is considered a good, bad, or excellent ACT score. Want to improve your score by 4+ points? Our completely online and customized prep program adapts to your strengths, weaknesses, and needs. And we guarantee your money back if you don't improve your score by 4points or more. Sign up for your free trial today. Want to improve your ACT score by 4 points? Check out our best-in-class online ACT prep classes. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your ACT score by 4 points or more. Our classes are entirely online, and they're taught by ACT experts. If you liked this article, you'll love our classes. Along with expert-led classes, you'll get personalized homework with thousands of practice problems organized by individual skills so you learn most effectively. We'll also give you a step-by-step, custom program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Try it risk-free today:

Sunday, October 20, 2019

HUNT Surname Meaning and Origin

HUNT Surname Meaning and Origin As it sounds, the Hunt surname is generally considered to be an occupational name for a hunter, from the Old English hunta, meaning to hunt. Its also possible that the Hunt surname is an mis-translation of the Irish surname Ó Fiaich (due to confusion with fiach, the modern spelling of fiadhach, meaning to hunt), or an Anglicized spelling of the German surname Hundt. Surname Origin:  English Alternate Surname Spellings:  HUNTER, HUNTAR, HUNTE, HUNTA, HUNTT, HUNDT Where in the World is the HUNT Surname Found? According to  Forebears, the Hunt surname is most prevalent in the United States, where over 172,000 people bear the name. It is more common based on rank in the nation, however, in New Zealand (ranked 78th), Wales (84th) and  England (89th). Historical data from the 1881 census in England shows the surname Hunt was most common in Wiltshire (11th most common surname), Dorset (12th), Berkshire (17th), Somerset and Oxfordshire (23rd), Hampshire (24th) and Leicestershire (25th). WorldNames PublicProfiler  identifies the Hunt surname as being especially common in the United Kingdom, followed by Australia and New Zealand. Within the UK it is most common in southern England, especially the counties of Dorset, Somerset, Wiltshire, Oxfordshire, Warwickshire, Monmouthshire and Derbyshire. Famous People with the Last Name HUNT Linda Hunt - American actress, born  Lydia Susanna HunterHelen Hunt - American actressJames Hunt - British race car driver famous in the 1970sE. Howard Hunt - former CIA agent, famous for helping to organize the Watergate breakinAlfred Hunt - American steel magnateHenry Hunt - British radical speaker and politicianBonnie Hunt - American actressLeigh Hunt - English author and criticWilliam Morris Hunt - American painter Genealogy Resources for the Surname HUNT How to Research English AncestorsTrace your British roots back to England and beyond with the steps outlined in this English genealogy guide. Learn how to locate your ancestors county and/or parish in England, plus how to access vital records, census records and parish records. The HUNT DNA WebsiteOver 180 individuals with the Hunt surname and variants such as Hunte, Hunta, Huntt, Hundt, etc. have tested their Y-DNA and joined this project to help identify various Hunt families. Hunt Family Crest - Its Not What You ThinkContrary to what you may hear, there is no such thing as a Hunt family crest or coat of arms for the Hunt surname.  Coats of arms are granted to individuals, not families, and may rightfully be used only by the uninterrupted male line descendants of the person to whom the coat of arms was originally granted. FamilySearch - HUNT GenealogyExplore over 4 million historical records and lineage-linked family trees posted for the Hunt surname and its variations on the free FamilySearch website, hosted by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. HUNT Surname Family Mailing ListsRootsWeb hosts a free mailing lists for researchers of the Hunt surname. - HUNT Genealogy Family HistoryExplore free databases and genealogy links for the last name Hunt. The Hunt Genealogy and Family Tree PageBrowse genealogy records and links to genealogical and historical records for individuals with the popular last name Hunt from the website of Genealogy Today.- References: Surname Meanings Origins Cottle, Basil.  Penguin Dictionary of Surnames. Baltimore, MD: Penguin Books, 1967. Dorward, David.  Scottish Surnames. Collins Celtic (Pocket edition), 1998. Fucilla, Joseph.  Our Italian Surnames. Genealogical Publishing Company, 2003. Hanks, Patrick and Flavia Hodges.  A Dictionary of Surnames. Oxford University Press, 1989. Hanks, Patrick.  Dictionary of American Family Names. Oxford University Press, 2003. Reaney, P.H.  A Dictionary of English Surnames. Oxford University Press, 1997. Smith, Elsdon C.  American Surnames. Genealogical Publishing Company, 1997.    Back to  Glossary of Surname Meanings Origins

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Certificate IV in Credit Management (FNS40111) project Essay

Certificate IV in Credit Management (FNS40111) project - Essay Example Research these sites to identify similar products to the ones you have listed and their features. The available home loans in Commonwealth Bank include Standard Variable Rate Home Loan, No Fee Variable Rate Home Loan, Fixed Rate Home Loan, Veridian Line of Credit, Introductory Rate Home Loan, Equity Unlock, Customize with loan add-ons, and Investment loan options. RAMS Home Loans offers to types of loans: Fixed Rate Home Loan and Full feature Home Loan. Loans available in ANZ include Simplicity PLUS Home Loan, ANZ Variable Rate Home Loan, ANZ Fixed Rate Home Loan, ANZ Breakfree Home Loan Package. Commonwealth Bank differs with other Australian banks since it has a unique twist to the types of loans offered. ANZ’s personal loans include Variable Rate Personal Loan, Fixed Rate Personal Loan, ANZ Car Loans, ANZ Overdrafts, and Debt Consolidation. Commonwealth Bank has four types of personal loans: Fixed Rate Loan, Variable Rate Loan, Secured Car Loan, and Personal Overdrafts. RAMS does not give direct personal loans since it receives much of its funding for home loans from Westpac Bank Community. Therefore, the personal loans under Westpac will apply. Westpac offers 3 types of personal loans: Westpac Flexi Loan, Westpac Unsecured Personal Loan, and Westpac Secured Personal Loan. From the banks listed above, ANZ offers sacral options of personal loans. In the Credit Card category, ANZ offers products such as Low Rate, Low Fee, Rewards, Frequent Flyer, Prepaid Cards, Business cards, and Debit Cards. Commonwealth Bank has credit offers such as Low Rate, Low Fee, Awards and Small Businesses. In total, there are 9 choices of credit cards to be chosen from. Credit cards in Westpac include Low Rate, 55 Day Credit Card, Earth Platinum Credit Card, Singapore Airlines Westpac Platinum, Earth Credit Card, Altitude Card, 55 Day Platinum Credit Card, Altitude Business Gold Credit Card, and GM Holden MasterCard. From the options above, Westpac has the most

Friday, October 18, 2019

Good Intentions Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Good Intentions - Essay Example To impose themselves as volunteers in villages in Latin America where they do not understand anything is sheer hypocrisy displayed by the Americans. In fact, charity should begin at home but that is not the case with these volunteers who want to associate with their kith and kin who belong to the middle class not the poor at all. Illich argues that North American volunteers in Latin America are there as a result of the quest to invade Mexico under the guise of benevolent gestures. In actual fact, the volunteers in Latin America are there to create â€Å"social disorder† as aptly put by the author. Once this social disorder has been created, the targeted audiences would tend to view themselves in light of the ideals that have been disseminated to them by the people who have been working as volunteers. The intention is good but unethical at the same time given that there is a hidden agenda behind the whole initiative that is destructive to other nations. The volunteers want to seduce the people they purport to help to share the same ideals of America that based on affluence and education. In other words, the volunteers want to impart a lifestyle full of American ideals to people who obviously cannot match the standards. These people are better off if they follow their usual way of life. In other words, the good intentions of the volunteers amount to dominance of other countries. The US wants other people to believe that there is â€Å"heaven on earth† through their policies across the globe. To a larger extent, I strongly agree with Illich because most of the volunteers who operate in poor areas have a hidden agenda. First and foremost, they would be concerned with imparting their values and ideals on weaker nations. This would put them in a position to dominate these nations that are poor. It can be seen that these volunteer groups have good intentions but upon a closer

Whether the personal consciousness survives death Essay

Whether the personal consciousness survives death - Essay Example â€Å"[T]here is life after death† (Weintrub). The personal consciousness survives the death, and its satisfaction depends upon the goodness of deeds the individual performed in this world when he/she was alive. After death, an angel takes the soul out of the body and escorts it to either of the two places, one of which is meant for the good souls and the other for the bad souls. While the soul is taken out of the body, it still maintains a connection with it. The body is buried in the earth in the grave. Inside the grave, the dead body is exposed to different kinds of circumstances depending upon the kinds of deeds the person performed in the world while he/she was alive. The grave of a person who performs good deeds expands so that the person does not get suffocated inside the grave. In fact, the grave is enlightened with the light and fragrance of the heaven. Although the soul is departed from the dead body and it is only the dead body that is buried in the grave, yet the soul can feel just the same whatever the dead body does. Hence, the soul of a good person feels all the pleasures and peace that the dead body is blessed with. On the other hand, the grave in which the dead body of a ba d person is placed becomes narrower and narrower until it pressed the body so hard that the bones become dislocated and merge into one another. Again, all of this happens to the dead body, yet the soul can feel all the pain that it would had it been inside the dead body. Although consciousness survives the death, yet there are limits to it. One cannot say for sure that the soul can hear the cries of the relatives who mourn over the person’s death while the dead body is being buried or later. However, there is no doubt in the fact that the soul cannot reply any human being once it has been taken out of the body. The soul can feel the pain or joy depending upon the deeds the individual did when alive.

Boys and Girls by Alice Munro Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Boys and Girls by Alice Munro - Essay Example In â€Å"Boys and Girls†, the author highlights the story of a young girl, who had greater concern for her favorite horses, in the first person narrative. The girl, though very young, helped her father in his farming work mainly by caring for the horses. The internal conflicts of the girls start when he father decides to kill the old horse to feed his foxes. In an attempt to save the horse from death, she lets it free and waits fearfully for her father’s response on finding that she was the culprit behind the escape of the horse. The story develops from there with her little brother’s enthusiasm to get the horse chased back home with the help of a hired hunter. Most parts of the book represent the author’s concern over the societies that undermine the roles of women in active social life. As Martin comments, â€Å"it is not a funny story, but in fact, a poignant comedy† (45). In a situation of the story, when her brother tells everyone during a dinn er that the girl was the reason behind the missing of the horse, her father replies by saying â€Å"Never mind, she’s only a girl†. ... The siblings were given a room to share in the home with a number of safety instructions from their father. As Hooper reflects, â€Å"Boys and Girls returns readers to an already familiar Munro place where mother’s sphere of things is boring and repressive†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (12). The author expresses the ways in which boys enjoyed more social freedom than girls in a family. Girls had to fear almost all factors ranging from darkness to strangers in her time. When the decision making was a question before their life, it was always a conflicting situation between the prospects of parental approval and social acceptance. As Munro writes, even when she had to see the way her father shot the horse with the help of his farm hand, she only told her brother â€Å"Now, you have seen how they shoot a horse.† This expression shows the acquired numbness of the author from the experiences of her childhood in which she used to witness her father engaging in the trade of animal husbandry that involved killing of animals for money. In another context when her father says to her mother with a blood stained appearance that he had shot old Flora, the mare, her mother replied saying â€Å"Well, I don’t want to hear about it, and don’t come to my table like that.† This expression sounds the general disagreement among women with the ‘killing business’. While focusing more on the protagonist, the author can be seen to have given little significance to her name – to a great extent, it may be because of the influences of her own childhood experiences of low self esteem forced by the over preference prevailed in common families of her society. In the story, the girl is critically disregarded by her family members after the birth of her brother. She was treated

Thursday, October 17, 2019

INDIVIDUAL MARKETING PLAN Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

INDIVIDUAL MARKETING PLAN - Essay Example We also aim to expand our distribution through creation of online channels so that we can reach as many customers as we can. Our promotion strategy would also include providing extra benefits to our dealers so that we can achieve more shelf space. This plan will be implemented with overall budget around $ 400,000/ in first year and with its implementation, we intend to achieve an increase of 1% in our market share and have set a baseline of 10,000 units to be sold through our traditional network of dealers as well as online distribution. There are growing changes into the consumer preferences in terms of their preference for V8 Cars in Australia. There are many factors responsible for this change including rising oil prices; global credit crunch as well as increasing commodity prices however despite those key players in Australian Market witnessed slow but steady growth in V8 Market. 1 Muscle V8 cars are high powered cars mostly from American and Australian models. The most important characteristics of such types of cars is the fact that they are two door rear wheel cars and are considered as midsized cars with typical V8 engines. These cars were mostly used for street driving and in some cases for racing. Recent trends however suggest that new models have been developed particularly for racing purposes. The history of V8 Cars in Australia is one of the great achievements in terms of cars production of V8 model now run in millions. During last sixty years, GM Holden Ford has been two most important players in Australia who have dominated the market for V8 cars especially through a continuous process of improvements. This improvement, made according to the customer tastes and preferences, saw a shift in the design and use of V8 cars from just street cars to the V8 super cars for racing purposes. The typical romance for such types of cars is still on rise as

Recycling Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 3

Recycling - Essay Example ce and prevent waste of materials that are useful, minimizes the usage of new raw material minimizes energy usage, air pollution and water pollution and reduced green house effect in comparison to the production of plastic. The key component of the modern waste elimination is recycling (PORTER, 1985). Recycling of glass is the process by which waste glass are turned into some usable products. The waste glass is separated by different chemical compositions. These may also be sorted into various colors. Often recyclers gather glass of different colors separately as glass has a tendency to retain its original color even after being recycled. The glass mostly used for consumer containers include green glass, brown glass and colorless glass (PORTER, 1985). Glass is in very huge amount in industrial and household waste because of its high density and weight. The components of glass in these wastes are usually broken glassware, bottles, bulbs and many more items. A very huge amount of this waste is due to the manual ways of making glass object that has a very high defect rate. Recycling of glass uses lower energy than making glass either from lime, sand or soda (PORTER, 1985). In a home renovation, the effective management of waste infrastructure is needed for treatment and collection where it can be used as a raw material. If we want to renovate our home, so we will first think about what infrastructures can be modified or not; and about glass and wood in the house. Each year in Europe about 1.2 million glass waste tones is producing by renovation and demolition of the buildings. Glass amounts to 0.66% of demolition and construction of the continent of Europe. Either you can dispose the glass off or renovate it. Dismantling is the procedure when glass is taken away from the home and taken away by its kind as per the planned end use. Cullet processing is the time when incomplete quantities of Demolition and Construction glass are used as in there is not a standardized

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

INDIVIDUAL MARKETING PLAN Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

INDIVIDUAL MARKETING PLAN - Essay Example We also aim to expand our distribution through creation of online channels so that we can reach as many customers as we can. Our promotion strategy would also include providing extra benefits to our dealers so that we can achieve more shelf space. This plan will be implemented with overall budget around $ 400,000/ in first year and with its implementation, we intend to achieve an increase of 1% in our market share and have set a baseline of 10,000 units to be sold through our traditional network of dealers as well as online distribution. There are growing changes into the consumer preferences in terms of their preference for V8 Cars in Australia. There are many factors responsible for this change including rising oil prices; global credit crunch as well as increasing commodity prices however despite those key players in Australian Market witnessed slow but steady growth in V8 Market. 1 Muscle V8 cars are high powered cars mostly from American and Australian models. The most important characteristics of such types of cars is the fact that they are two door rear wheel cars and are considered as midsized cars with typical V8 engines. These cars were mostly used for street driving and in some cases for racing. Recent trends however suggest that new models have been developed particularly for racing purposes. The history of V8 Cars in Australia is one of the great achievements in terms of cars production of V8 model now run in millions. During last sixty years, GM Holden Ford has been two most important players in Australia who have dominated the market for V8 cars especially through a continuous process of improvements. This improvement, made according to the customer tastes and preferences, saw a shift in the design and use of V8 cars from just street cars to the V8 super cars for racing purposes. The typical romance for such types of cars is still on rise as

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

World History College Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

World History College - Essay Example The condition of women within a particular society was dramatically impacted by the amount of socialization the central culture had developed. For example, India had a heavy caste system wherein women were viewed as weak, frivolous, unimportant, etc. (AUTHOR # 1 132). The fact that the social system perceived women in such a negative light, and was then too inflexible to accommodate change, resulted in women remaining in oppressive or inferior positions with no recourse. In fact, it was the very development of these types of systems that relegated women to a lower class structure. As AUTHOR # 2 states, "women enjoyed broader occupational options and a stronger voice within the family and in society as a whole before the emergence of centralized politics and highly stratified social systems (AUTHOR # 2 268). Not unpredictably, the more money a woman's family possessed, the better daily life she lived. A poor woman would be expected to work in the field or perform other menial tasks while a rich woman would be less likely to experience hardship.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Design History Of The Chair Cultural Studies Essay

Design History Of The Chair Cultural Studies Essay For an insight into the history of design, it is no better place to start than by looking at the everyday object, the Chair. A chair is a piece of furniture that often goes unnoticed, yet really is essential to everyday living. It is generally taken for granted and not recognised for its valuable contribution to our lives. Many aspects, social, cultural, aesthetics, technologies etc can be seen through the evolution of Chair design. In this essay, I shall be looking at three different designers and their designs, particularly the function, form, use of materials, intended market and production methods. The first designer was Michael Thonet (1796-1871) Thonet was born in Germany (then called Prussia) His life began at the start of the industrial revolution. He did an apprenticeship in cabinet making in his hometown and shortly afterwards began experimenting with veneers and bentwood. Maybe it was significant that he was born around the time of the revolution, as he is certainly a good example of that period, as he formed a massive company that is recognised as a leading force in mass production. His Factory designed by himself, was very close to a beech wood forest, many other designers used wood that was flat, with lots of joints but Thonet had managed to perfect his designs by using the beech wood in a new and revolutionary bending method. He went on to use wood veneers, glueing lots together so they were flexible. He was known for his experiments to help him and this meant that he was able to go on to be one of the first designers in mass production. His chair was the first in flat pack furniture to be assembled at home by the buyer. The chair was designed to be cheap , strong and light and a good sturdy chair to sit . In the home it would have been used in the kitchen and living room. The intended market would have been to the middle and lower classes as it was a widely available cheaper chair. It was a mass produced chair and by 1900 an estimated 40 million chairs had been produced. My second Designer was Charles Rennet Mackintosh (1868-1928) Born in Glasgow he was an architect, designer and artist, is today celebrated internationally as one of the most significant talents of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.   At the age of 16 he became an apprentice to John Hutchinson. He also began attending evening classes at the Glasgow School of Art and met fellow artist Margaret MacDonald, who eventually became his wife. They were both members of the collaborative group known as The Four, prominent members of the Glasgow School Movement. Mackintosh became a partner of the firm Honeyman Keppie in 1903. However, at the turn of an economic hardship in 1913, Mackintosh left the firm Honeyman Keppie to open his own practice. After unsuccessfully trying to establish his own practice, he dedicated his time to landscape painting in France. Mackintosh returned to England in 1927 for treatment of tongue and throat cancer. He died in London in 1928. Designed by Charles Rennie Mackintosh in 1903 Black Ladder Back Chair Mackintosh was one of the leading exponents in the Arts Crafts Movement and one of the leading representatives of Art Nouveau in Scotland. The chair itself was a component of a house designed The Hill House and was actually not meant to sit on. The fact that the back of the chair is a long way over your head does add to the fact that it reassembles in my opinion a throne. Everything seems right about this chair: proportions, materials style. The chair was a one of design for the hill house to match the high ceilings in the house . the chair was not designed to be sat on but as a piece of art its self and as a decorative piece. The designer used would for the frame of the chair and upholstery for the seat . It was designed and built for ww Blackie the owner of the hill house . The chair still sits in the hill house bedroom. My third designer to look at was Charles and Ray Eames, they are the most important American designers of this century. Charles Eames was born in 1907 in St. Louis, Missouri. He attended school there and developed an interest in engineering and architecture. He later extended his design ideas beyond architecture and received a fellowship to Cranbrook Academy of Art in Michigan, where he eventually became head of the design department. Ray Kaiser Eames was born in Sacramento. She studied painting with Hans Hofmann in New York before moving on to Cranbrook Academy where she met and assisted Charles. Charles and Ray married in 1941 and moved to California. In 1946, Evans Products began producing the Eamess moulded plywood furniture. Their moulded plywood chair was called the chair of the century by the influential architectural critic Esther McCoy. Eames Lounge Chair, 1956 Designed in 1956 this icon of 20th century design created by the Eames to provide a modern alternative to traditional club chairs. Since its debut in 1956, the chair and ottoman have been continuously produced by Herman Miller (A leading global provider of office furniture) According to  Charles Eames, design is simply a plan for arranging elements in such a way as to best accomplish a particular purpose. The chair was designed to be a relaxing comfortable chair . and in Charles Eames own words a special refuge from the strains of modern living.. The first chair was a originally a gift for Billy wilder. The chair is also specially designed so that it can take all the weight of your lower spine helping you relax even more . And putting your feet up on the ottoman helps restore blood circulation after a hard days work. The materials used are natural wood such as natural cherry, walnut and santos palisander a rich grainy veneer. The chair is still very popular and is seen in many styl ish interiors. Conclusion An insight into the past can be seen all around us, but the chair, an item so important to us, from the plastic mass produced ones you see in fast food chain shops to our old comfortable armchairs, they all hold so much more information about the history of design. From the early designs and experimenting by Michael Thonet and his way of making bent wood chairs and furniture it would be hard to think that Charles Eames would have been able to go on to design his Lounge Chair. Then with Charles Eames designs and advances in production techniques and mass marketing of chairs it has become possible for everyone to have a classic piece of design history in their home or office. Or even own a reproduction of Charles Mackintoshs Ladder Back Chair for very little costs. The type of chair that someone chooses for their home can in say a lot about them. Victorian styles show that a person prefers the older styles. Art Deco has bright colours and geometric shapes. With most people, the most important factor to consider when choosing a chair other than the colour or style is comfort. If someone was suffering from back problems, for example they might require a designer to design a chair to suit their needs. When someone chooses a modern chair design for the office or in his or her home it says there forward thinkers, with modern tastes. So for an everyday object to so often go unnoticed is a shame, the chosen design and style of chair someone chooses can say allot more and can be I think a very good illustration of their personality.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Doctor-Assisted Suicide and the Hospitals Bottom Line :: Euthanasia Physician Assisted Suicide

Euthanasia and the Hospitals' Bottom Line      Ã‚   An important factor in debates over health care and treatment strategies is the issue of cost. It is tremendously expensive to provide the state-of-the-art care that the modern hospital offers. Concerns about where the money will come from to care for elderly citizens appear to be making the case for "mercy killing" even more compelling. Under financial pressure, hospitals are exercising their right to deny such expensive healthcare to the aged or seriously ill.    We reserve the right to refuse service: Most people have seen these signs at restaurants and retail shops. But now, metaphorically, some hospitals are hanging such notices over their entryways by promulgating "futile care" protocols that grant doctors the right to say no to wanted life-extending medical treatment to patients whose lives they consider lacking in sufficient quality to justify the cost of care.    Unnoticed by the mainstream press, a disturbing study published in the Fall 2000 issue of the Cambridge Quarterly of Health Care Ethics reveals how far the futile-care movement, in reality the opening salvo in a planned campaign among medical elites to impose health-care rationing upon us, has already advanced. The authors reviewed futility policies currently in effect in 26 California hospitals. Of these, only one policy provided that "doctors should act to support the patient's life" when life-extending care is wanted. All but two of the hospital policies defined circumstances in which treatments should be considered nonobligatory even if requested by the patient or patient representative. In other words, 24 of the 26 hospitals permit doctors to unilaterally deny wanted life-supporting care.    How is such medical abandonment justified? Advocates of futile-care theory cleverly shift the focus away from the physiological effect provided to the patient and toward whether the patient has the "potential for appreciating the benefit of the treatment." Thus, the Cambridge Quarterly reports that 12 of the 26 hospitals surveyed prohibit treating people diagnosed with permanent unconsciousness (other than comfort care) based on these patients' supposed inability to know they are being treated. Never mind that several medical studies demonstrate that this condition is often wrongly diagnosed (40 percent misdiagnosis according to one British report). And never mind that such patients sometimes awaken unexpectedly, as recent headlines attest. What is most disturbing is that these policies, if enforced, would prevent profoundly brain-damaged and dementia patients from receiving tube-supplied food and water because such care is considered medical treatment.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Norwegian Whaling Essay -- Whaling Conservation Hunting Whales Essays

Norwegian Whaling Modern commercial whaling is continuously being over-exploited as whaling companies strive to maximize their profits despite international protest and a ban by the International Commission. Many various species of whales have been extinct, and the relatively few whales that remain are extremely vulnerable, and the factors that led to their over-exploitation in the past have not changed. Norway, one of the several countries involved in illegal whaling, has again refused to accept the international moratorium on whaling and has announced that its catch quotas for whales have risen. In 1995 Norwegian whales caught 217 whales out of a quota of 232. In 1996 the quota was 425. Now, on May 27, 1997 the whaling season will begin, and this year’s quota is increasing to some 700-800 whales. The rise is highly questionable especially due to the fact that 50 tons of whale meat from last year had to be frozen and put into storage due to the lack of demand. How many whales will be massacre this year just to be frozen? Recently in April, a Norwegian smuggler was caught in Japan trying to smuggle six tons of whale meat disguised as mackerel. Later it was discovered that the consignment was part of a conspiracy to smuggle a total of 60 tons of meat to Japan. The sale of whale meat can be a very lucrative net profit, considering that whaling companies make $10,000 for each whale captured. Japan is another country that exploits whaling for what they call "scientific analysis". However, the carcasses from this whale hunt are distributed to wholesalers and restaurants after this research is done on the whale. Japan remains the world’s largest consumer of whale meat, supplied in part by black market trade in species of mink... ...Norway, Japan, Iceland, and perhaps other unknown countries disregard all laws that protect whales from this world wide massacre. Fortunately, Greenpeace has been influential in creating a whale sanctuary in Antarctica and The International Whaling Commission has achieved a world wild moratorium on commercial whaling. However, we need to enforce these international laws more strictly, to prevent illegal killing and smuggling of whale meat for a business man’s moneymaking profit. Even though strict reinforcement may not cease the massacre completely, at least some whales will be saved and smugglers will be caught. REFERENCES 1. 2. 3. whe 4. 5.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Analysis of a Doll’s House

Analysis of A Doll’s House by Henrick Ibsen Shira Simmons South University Online Kris Shelton March 12, 2013 A Doll’s House has several high points that lead up to what I’ve considered the most defining moment. When Torvald finally reads the letter Krogstad (a fellow schoolmate and an employee at the bank) wrote revealing that it was not from Nora’s father that she borrowed money, but from him, what follows was totally unexpected by me. It seems that the situation of her husband falling ill and the decisions she had to make in regards to that, forced her to grow.In the end, Nora makes a decision that she doesn’t want to be married to her husband Torvald any longer, and she tells him so. The line, â€Å"We’ve been married for eight years. Doesn’t it occur to you that this is the first time the two of us, you and I, husband and wife, have had a serious conversation? † (Isben 1879 p. 590) says Nora, licks at where she is going wit h this conversation between the two of them. As you first read into the play, a perfect â€Å"trophy wife† scenario is portrayed. It’s the typical male working and the wife taking care of the kids and other affairs.The time this play was written, it was more common for the woman to stay home while the man worked. Today it isn’t rare to see the woman working and making more than the man. They are experiencing the normal money issues most married couples have and Torvald is expecting a higher salary after the New Year. As the other characters present themselves, you start to pick up on some uneasiness from Nora whenever Krogstad visits their home and one instance from Mrs. Linde whenever she was present. One evening whilst Torvald was away, Krogstad visits and has a chat with Nora.He tells her that if she didn’t convince Torvald to let him keep his job that he would blackmail Nora about the money she borrowed from him and forging her father’s signatu re on the contract for paying him back. Presenting that maybe their marriage isn’t as perfect as it seems. Torvald had become ill and Nora being the caring, dedicated wife that she had taken it upon herself as her wifely duty to see to it that he got better. Nora had little to no knowledge that forgery was a criminal offense; she only thought she was doing what was best for her husband.So she told her husband that she borrowed money from her father. Mrs. Linde, an old friend of Nora’s visits as well; she’s the only person Nora really has to confide in during the time this all-takes place. The plot reveals that she and Krogstad had a fling some years ago and now that she was widowed, wanted to link back up with Krogstad once again. She convinces Krogstad that he must leave the letter for Torvald to read because Nora should no longer hold a secret betwixt her and her husband. I felt there was a possibility that Mrs.Linde didn’t come to just meet back up wit h Krogstad, that she may have decided this in the mist of Nora and her situation, even though she states otherwise. Maybe she did so to help out Nora and Torvald by focusing Krogstad’s attention elsewhere. Right after Torvald reads Krogstad’s letter, he immediately attacks Nora and belittles her. After saying such degrading, hurtful things, Nora coldly looks at him and replies â€Å"Yes, I’m beginning to understand everything now† (Isben 1879 p. 590). This implies she has now realized exactly what she has been and how she has been treated by her father and him both.He raves on about what she has done to him and what he must do to fix it. Not once taking into account what Nora must be going through herself, or consequences she would have to endure? â€Å"†¦No, I’d better read it again. Yes, it’s true! I’m saved! Nora, I’m saved! † (Isben 1879 p. 590) exclaims Torvald after reading an apologetic letter from Krogstad a nd only after Nora saying something did he mention â€Å"we† were saved. During her farewell pardon, Nora sounds like a completely different woman. She sounds strong, sure, independent and determined; so very different from whom she was in the beginning.Although this situation basically ruined their marriage, it really shed some light for Nora. She finally realizes that she has been robbed of so much, being both a prized possession of her father and Torvald’s; that’s the beauty of it. Now she can set forth to learn and to be happy with herself. References: Ibsen, H. (2011). A doll’s house. In D. L. Pike and A. M. Acosta (Eds. )  Ã‚  Literature:  A world of writing stories, poems, plays, and essays. [VitalSource digital version] (pp. 555-589). Boston, MA: Pearson Learning Solutions.