Monday, September 30, 2019

The Enron and Worldcom Scandals

E. Boos – Week 2 – Assignment February 17, 2013 The Enron and WoldCom Scandals ENRON 1. The segment of Enron’s operations that got them into difficulties had several parts. They published misleading financial reports. They could not meet their bridge financing commitment with Barclay Bank because outside investors were not found. Because of this, they restated activities of JEDI and Chewco SPEs so they could be retroactively consolidated into Enron’s accounts. The SPEs helped to hide the inaccurate accounting records.Enron’s legal department wrote contracts that helped provide a cover for misuse of funds regarding the SPEs. Future revenue was reported as current revenue. Stocks were paid with promissory notes instead of cash. They also engaged in off-the-books activities and excessive executive compensation. Enron’s board of directors allowed the executives, accountants and legal department to use Special Purpose Entities (SPEs), a type of pa rtnership, in an attempt to camouflage their debt and create a facade of financial stability (Brooks, 2007). 3. Enron’s directors understood how profits were made.They also knew management’s activities were dishonest. Andrew Fastow was active in forming the SPE partnerships and his affiliation with LJM2 was a conflict of interest. When Enron began experiencing financial problems in October 2001, the board of directors began holding special meetings. They were paid with cash, restricted stock, phantom stock units and stock options. The Senate Subcommittee Report, dated July 8, 2002, found that the Enron board of directors was aware that employees participated in management of the SPEs which was a conflict of interest.The directors ignored the inaccurate accounting, extensive unrecorded activities and excessive executive compensation. The Senate report discovered that the board of directors knew of financial activities between Enron and some of the board’s members . The board permitted consulting services, internal audits, and external audits to be performed by the same company, namely, Arthur Andersen (Brooks, 2007). 5. Ken Lay was chairperson of the board. He reassumed the position of CEO after Skilling resigned. As CEO he oversaw all of Enron’s activities.Lay and Whaley directed Causey to sell the Raptor SPEs. The sale price of was privately negotiated between Fastor, on behalf of Enron, and Kopper on behalf of LJM2. Lay did not interfere when Arthur Andersen directed Enron to record the buyout excess money as income. He knowingly allowed fraudulent activities and false information to be included in the financial reports. This was unethical. The Powers Report identifies seven questionable accounting issues concerning the sale of the Raptors (Brooks, 2007). 6.The board of directors did not insist that full disclosure of Enron’s earning be made available to the public and the shareholders. They allowed inaccurate reports to be published. Since they did not challenge management involvement in fraudulent activities, this meant the shareholders interests were not protected (Brooks, 2007). 9. Conflict of interest concerning SPE activities occurred because Enron employees were active in managing certain SPEs. Losses were not reported in end of year reports to offset other nonprofitable dealings.Arthur Andersen did not report all of the earnings and helped Enron cover up losses. When Andrew Fastow, wanted to manage the SPE, Chewco, he was advised by Jeffrey Skilling who was on the board of directors, that he should not manage Chewco because it would be a conflict of interest. Instead, Fastow appointed Michael Kopper who worked for him at Enron, to manage Chewco (Brooks, 2007). WORLDCOM 1. To inflate their profit in the current period, WorldCom created overstatements of cash flow and income by inaccurately reporting line costs. Line costs were a major expense to WorldCom.They were payments WorldCom made to third party telecommunicator network providers for the right to access their networks. These costs should have been shown as an expense rather than appearing on the income statement (Brooks, 2007). 2. WorldCom’s board of directors could have prevented the manipulation of revenue that management used if they had not been intimidated by Bernie Ebbers. They allowed themselves to be intimidated by Bernie Ebbers when he did not want their questions answered or give them more definitive explanations. Eventually, they demanded Bernie Ebber’s resignation and he resigned.The board of directors scheduled periodic meetings with WorldCom. The directors should have been more involved and familiar with WorldCom’s activities and efforts to manipulate expenses and decreased income (Brooks, 2007). 4. Bernie Ebbers was the CEO of WorldCom, the CFO was Scott Sullivan and David Myers was the Controller. Prior to working for WorldCom they had worked for Arthur Andersen. Arthur Andersen w as the auditor for WorldCom. That is why the accountants did not say or do anything to prevent Ebbers’ manipulation of WorldCom’s financial reports (Brooks, 2007). . Ebbers received $408. 2 million dollars as a loan to buy WorldCom stock or for margin calls as the stock price fell. Instead of using the money for the purpose he received it, he used it to buy a cattle ranch in Canada, build a new home, pay for personal expenses of a family member, and provide loans to family and friends (Brooks, 2007). Reference: Brooks, L. J. (2007). Business & professional ethics for directors, executives, & accountants (4th ed. ). Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection database.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Argumentative Essay on Immigration

Illegal Immigration Amnesty There are many problems that the United States faces and the one that is causing several debates is illegal immigration. Thousands and thousands of illegal immigrants have come from many different places. All of them have different desires. One might want a safe future for their family, one is probably looking for a fresh start, or even a place to spread their knowledge. The big question is should illegal immigrants be granted amnesty? After the resources and argument, it is believed that Amnesty should be given to illegal aliens. What is amnesty?Amnesty is a pardon for someone who was convicted in a crime. Amnesty is tangled with the term â€Å"Illegal Aliens†. Illegal aliens according to the law are people who are undocumented and not originally from the country they are currently residing in. There are different points of view on this issue. Nathan Thornburgh, Times Magazine Reporter states, â€Å"Whether you fine illegal aliens or stick them in English classes or make them say a hundred Hail Marys, at the end of the day, illegals would be allowed to stay and become citizens†¦ That's amnesty. And that's a good thing for America.Amnesty won't depress wages – globalization has already done that. Amnesty will not undermine the rule of law. It sounds counterintuitive, but with immigration, forgiving a crime may be the best way to restore law and order. Amnesty won't necessarily add to the social- services burden. Amnesty would offer millions†¦ a fighting chance at self- sufficiency and social mobility. † Everyone deserves a chance to show what they are capable of. Granting amnesty will also reduce the abuse these immigrants face. Many don’t complain about labor exploitation and substandard working conditions in the fear of being deported.Arnold Schwarzenegger, 38th. Governor of California has his own views on this Amnesty situation. â€Å"I am writing to urge Congress to act this year to pass com prehensive immigration reform. We must find a permanent solution to our broken i mmigration system, and I believe that this is our chance to restore America’s status as both a country of immigrants and a nation of laws†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Arnold Schwarzenegger also believes that instead of fighting this crisis of amnesty, it should be resolved in a way where everyone agrees to amnesty. A huge part of the economy depends on the illegal immigrants such as agriculture.Natives have a mindset that they are too good to be working at such lowly ranked jobs so such labor depends on these immigrants. Without the support of the increased population of the illegal immigrants, the economy would be in a condition that’s worse than it already is. Granting amnesty will also reduce crime because these immigrants will not fear about reporting crimes to authorities, therefore helping to reduce the crime rate to an extent. With legalization of these aliens it will strengthen and revitalize the nation and it will increase the nation’s security.Granting amnesty will help the nation focus on more important resources such as militia. These resources that are focused on capturing illegal immigrants who enter the country for work could be redirected towards homeland security or funds for war. Not all agree that the â€Å"illegal aliens† should be able to get a chance to prove themselves. According to Heritage Foundation â€Å"Do not grant amnesty to illegal aliens. Regardless of the penalties imposed, any program that grants individuals who are unlawfully present the legal permission to remain here rewards illegal behavior and is unfair to those who obey the law†¦Ã¢â‚¬ Heritage Foundation believes that it is unfair to grant illegal immigrants the same rights that legal citizens have. They believe this because the illegal immigrants did not follow the laws when they entered the country and the legal immigrants did. There are many cons to the legalization of illegal immigrants. Illegal immigrants shouldn’t be granted amnesty because it can increase further illegal immigration at the nations border. This can also encourage trafficking and smuggling of illegal aliens who will pay high prices to enter a country who’s granting amnesty.This also means that the crime will increase and by not granting amnesty it can be avoided. It is also very costly for to tax payers to grant illegal aliens amnesty especially regarding education, healthcare, welfare and social services. Education isn’t at its peak because cuts are always made and increasing kids in the public education system will obviously make it more costly than it has to be. Health care has also been a big issue tax payers definitely don’t want to pay for costs they can avoid. The job market will take a toll with the increasing population of documented aliens.The unemployment rate will increase which means that millions of more people will be looking for work without positive results. By providing amnesty, it shows that the people who are following the rules have the same status as the illegal aliens who should be penalized for their wrong doings. The Heritage Foundation has come to the conclusion that â€Å"†¦Those who enter the United States illegally should not be rewarded with permanent legal status or other such benefits, and they should be penalized in any road to citizenship.Those who enter and remain in the country illegally are violating the law, and condoning or encouraging such violations increases the likelihood of further illegal conduct. † Which means, the person who comes to the country legally should be let go however the one who comes illegally must be harshly reprimanded and shouldn’t be allowed to have the same luxuries as a person who follows the rules. . Believe it or not, but amnesty is bound to benefit America. Amnesty works politically and socially. It helps with the economy and it provides a sa fe journey for future generations whether they’re illegal or not.There are many people mostly students who are intelligent who want to seek a better future. Amnesty will help provide a future for these young people. They will be able to go to college, have a professional care. Even community organizer, Julio Flores says â€Å"There's a great human potential in this town that doesn't see the light of day because of the legal status. † All in all, even though there are any pros and cons towards the decision if amnesty should be granted or not, we are still stuck on the same question â€Å"should illegal aliens be granted amnesty? There are many different points of view on this situation. Amnesty, to a great extent is a resolute by the certain circumstances in which the country find themselves in. Citations Page 1. MLA  (7th ed. ): ProCon. org. â€Å"Is amnesty a good solution to illegal immigration? †Ã‚  Immigration. ProCon. org. ProCon. org, 22 May 2009. Web. 27 Oct. 2012. 2. Thornburgh/Beardstown, Nathan, and Ill. â€Å"Immigration: The Case for Amnesty. â€Å"TIME  [Beardstown] n. d. : 1+. Web. 3. â€Å"Immigration Amnesty. †Ã‚  US. N. p. , n. d. Web. 27 Oct. 2012. .

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Limited partnership Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Limited partnership - Essay Example One partner may be both a general and limited partner. When this is the case, all the rights and responsibilities that apply to a general partner also apply to him. However, the contribution that such a partner gives is protected in law just like that of any other limited partner. The limited partner only has interest in the property of the business. Should such a partner participate in the management of the business, they may risk losing their status as a limited partner, and thereby be liable for any debts in the company. Participating in the management of the business does not include any advice that such a partner gives to a general partner on matters that pertain to the business. The limited partner has an entitlement to inspect the records of the partnership at a reasonable time. They are also entitled in law to any piece of information regarding the partnership. Due to the fact that the limited partners are not allowed to participate in the running of the business, the general partners owe them a fiduciary

Friday, September 27, 2019

Game Theory Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Game Theory - Research Paper Example Game theory is useful for many purposes. First, one must ask, what is game theory? â€Å"Game theory uses mathematical tools to study situations, called games, involving both conflict and cooperation. Its study was greatly stimulated by the publication in 1944 of the monumental Theory of Games and Economic Behavior by John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Before we get into the details of game theory, it is first important to make clear a few definitions. A â€Å"game† consists of a competition between two or more parties, although in decision theory, it is possible to have a one-person game. A â€Å"player† is a party competing in said game. The state is the information known by a player at a certain point during the game. A strategy is a rule which defines how the player will play the game. The payoff is the value assigned to the result of play, i.e., the outcome—the results of which might be distinct for every player. The main concept behind game theory is that, in a game, each player is trying to maximize their resultant payoff. â€Å"The game theoretician is concerned with the mathematical model and with conclusions he can draw from assumptions (in particular about utilities represented by payoffs) that stay put, not with assumptions that capture the entire spectrum of human conflict behavior.† ... with assumptions that capture the entire spectrum of human conflict behavior.†2 At each stage of a game, a wide array of moves is presented to each player. Then, they each decide the move that would be the best choice, to the best of their knowledge, in order to achieve the highest payoff. There are always rules for selecting the proper moves at any point in a game which can be figured out before a game is played—which is called a strategy. Subsequently, it also follows that a game which is very complex, involving many decisions at varying stages can be represented by the strategy of each player. But, the result of any particular strategy really depends on the other players’ moves. Someone on the defensive might be able to calculate the lowest payoff or end result for each strategy (presuming that the particular strategy is somewhat of a secret), selecting the strategy that would result in the best (or highest) payoff. Basically, it is worth noting that one should account for the fact that many players will try to act as rationally as possible, hopefully making corollary decisions which would be deemed ration. To such an end, the main goal is to find a certain set of strategies (one per player) that maximizes each player’s payoff. However, such a selection of strategies should probably be rejected if it is not equilibrium. Equilibrium is basically reached when none of the players can attain a higher payoff by way of utilizing a different strategy, given the decisive actions of the other players. The model which has thus far been described is pretty abstract, although, technically speaking, this theory can be applied to a quite huge range of scenarios—and could be thusly applied to warfare, business, sports, or even politics. Truly, the possible uses of game

Thursday, September 26, 2019

The construct lifestyle in market segmentation Essay

The construct lifestyle in market segmentation - Essay Example One outcome of the search for marketing innovations is market segmentation. Market segmentation basically deals with allocating the right consumer with the right product. The Investopedia (2011) explains market segmentation as â€Å"aggregating of prospective buyers into groups (segments) that have common needs and will respond similarly to a marketing action.† Closely related to this explanation, Tatum (2011) posits that market segmentation â€Å"is a strategy that involves dividing a larger market into subsets of consumers who have common needs and applications for the goods and services offered in the market.† Because market segmentation tries to limit the division of the market base, it allows for the fullest understanding of basic rudiments of a particular market segment. Out of this benefit, Gonzalez and Bello (2002) came up with a coiled concentration of market segmentation on the tourism market where he writes about â€Å"The construct "lifestyle" in market seg mentation: The behavior of tourist consumers†. This paper seeks to assess the thesis of the author in regard to the construct lifestyle and examine other innovations presented in the article. Assessment of the thesis of the authors in regards to the construct lifestyle The authors make a number of theses as far as the construct lifestyle in market segmentation for tourist consumers are concerned. One of these theses has to do with the inclusion of lifestyle to help segment the tourism market more adequately. The writers are of the view that lifestyle of consumers is very imminent if the tourist market can properly be segmented. In view of this, they define â€Å"the construct lifestyle based on the activities, interest and opinion approach.† The authors therefore believe that for any effect market segmentation that will target specific tourist consumers, players in the industry must not loss sight of the very activities that tourist would want to engage in when they are out there on tourism. As far as tourism is concerned the World Tourism Organization recognizes three groups of consumers who are visitors, overnight tourists and excursionist (Gonzalez& Bello, 2002, pp. 53). Each of these three categories of consumers undertake the type of tourism they do for different purposes. In doing this, they participate in different pre-intended activities based on their interest and opinion of tourism. For example one group of people on tourism would opt for animal related destinations because they have a natural love for animals. Another would opt for plant related destinations because their work has to do with plants. In the view of the authors, when such interests and activities of consumers are well harnessed in the construct lifestyle, tourism operators will be in an excellent position to attract the right consumers at the right time because they will put in place the right segmentation to meet the needs of the consumers. Another thesis outlined by the authors is the need to base the construct lifestyle on the total needs of travelers. Simply out, people’s needs reflect their lifestyle. To this effect, they assert that â€Å"good theory of tourist motivation must consider the total needs of travelers and not limit its focus to one need† (Gonzalez& Bello, 2002, pp. 53). Continuing research in tourism show that there is a lot of relation between tourist motivation

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Writing assignment either #1 or #2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Writing assignment either #1 or #2 - Essay Example This group of people does not rely on facts, but by their awareness and have a world full of choices. They have changed the workplace by branding businesses by finding time to surf, check out for good deals at e-Bay, and maintain social networks. Global connectivity is already taking place and has changed the way individuals communicate with other people. The amount of information shared and the speed at which the transmission of information takes place is on the increase. This has led to the high efficiency and reduction of costs. In addition, global connectivity has led to an easier and faster way of connecting with friends and relatives. Individuals also make new friends and new business connections. Online communication support local identities and relationships, therefore making interactions easier among individuals who are mutually aware of each other. Individuals go online to search for research information that they can get in real time information through instant chats. For example, teachers can use this to facilitate discussions in classrooms. On the other hand, students can use the internet as an ultimate online textbook and they no longer need to pick many textbooks from the library. An individual can market a ne w product or service and can spread the advertising through social networking platforms free. The negative implications of global connectivity include the elimination of face-to-face socialization. It is easy to ignore or be rude to other people when having a conversation, but it is easy to filter unwanted people from making connections. Moreover, individuals find harassment, therefore; parents need to filter the internet content through parental control. Lastly, there is the risk of fraud or identity theft where the internet is available to anyone and thieves may steal an individual’s personal information and impersonate persons. Global connectivity has changed the way in which individuals interact and share information. Nonetheless, it

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Product Placement in the UK Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Product Placement in the UK - Assignment Example A product's life time and its place in the market are decided by the consumers. These consumers are largely affected by the television which is the powerful electronic media. The product placement relies on the audience who are the customers. In product placement, a particular product is advertised by means of movies, news or any other television programs. This attracts the audience even though it is not directly displayed in advertisements. There has been an increase in the number of people who watch television. This is due to the various channels and increase in the number of advertisements. The advertisements play a vital role in the existence of a product. (Lehu, 2007). The demographic and psychographic differences will differentiate the audience residing in various countries. The product placement also depends on the age of the audience. The audiences are divided into categories based on their age. The categories may be kids, teens, pensioners in male and female respectively. Based on the age, the number of audience differs and the product's placement is also done based on these categories.(Neate, 2010). The national statistics reveals the level of increase in the number of kids. There has been a drastic increase in the number of kids who view the television programs. ... Then the private companies and the government had a meeting on the ban of product placement in television programs, serials and movies. Though the ban was lifted, the government specified the companies to avoid the placement of certain goods. The companies aimed at placing the products in popular television shows and movies that had cast leading actors. This would enable them to reach the public in a better way. This continued to be the company's primary target was to attract the audience of all categories. (Paxson, 2002).The people from all strata of the society watch these shows. Hence this was an easier option for the companies to market their products. The company's earn very good revenue out of these product placements. Thus they concentrate on television shows that have the maximum number of viewers. The culture and lifestyle differences have a great impact on the product placement. There are people from different cultures and it is one among the deciding factors that influence the placement of products. People from different culture reside in U.K and it has created an impact on the companies. The companies decide based on the people and have to analyze the people's expectation. The lifestyle of the people is also an important factor. The companies approach towards product placement and the selection of programs depend on the people's lifestyle. The people from all strata of society continue to live in U.K and this has made the companies to concentrate more on product placements. The companies strike a balance between the lifestyle and culture of the people. People of U.K have a high expectation on the advertisement

Monday, September 23, 2019

TEXT ANALYSIS ASSIGNMENT Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

TEXT ANALYSIS - Assignment Example dy the trial’s circumstances as well as look into the circumstances that resulted to his accuser seek his death as well as the Athens’ people to agree in it. As far as this accusation goes, the scenario is not that different from the religion of St. Theodore of Sykeon. Theodore is sick and this could be a likened to Socrates’ being in court. Just as judges were there to look into the accusations against Socrates, in the cases of the saint there is God as well as the angles who come as doctors. Upon being asked why he is weeping, the saint answers that it is because he is unrepentant (The Life of St. Theodore of Sykeon ,1.2). This represents the accusations against Socrates. One of the major accusations against Socrates was denying gods that the state recognized as well as introducing to the state strange religions instead of such Gods. In the case of St, Theodore, earthly spirits that torment people can be seen. It the saint who continues to do miracles that does away with weaknesses as well as sicknesses. The spirits, weaknesses, as well as these spirits represent earthly gods that the state believes in, in the Socrates’ scenario. Theodore explains that something else that makes him cry is the young believers who need a shepherd. He is afraid that he will die and leave them without one. This is quite common the second accusation directed towards Socrates. That he turned away young people from their parents to serve the new religion he introduced. They accusers called it corrupting the young people. Socrates had associates whom he taught to despise State laws, amongst them, election through lots. Theodore has followers too: those who liked his works left their homes and came to be with him as well as change their lives to conform his teachings. Some of those healed by him as well opted to live by his side as well (The Life of St. Theodore of Sykeon, 2.2). Socrates during his presentation for his apology, his first words were that he was not sure if the

Sunday, September 22, 2019

BusinessModelCanvas Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

BusinessModelCanvas - Assignment Example sence, all one has to do is to join our website and gain access to a multitude of services and products offered by thousands of businesses (Papadopoulou 16). We have bundles consisting of (but not limited to): airline tickets, hotel and restaurant vouchers, and a wide range of merchandise (ranging from mobile phones to clothes). We also have utility services like cleaning, and just about any service in almost all service industries (Osterwalder, Pigneur & Clark 56). The reality is that our customers do not have routines. The reason for this is that we are an online service, therefore it is impossible to work out customer routines. What we do is make sure that the channels are available 24/7, all-year round. You never know when customer X or Y might decide to log in and search for a particular service or product (Osterwalder, Pigneur & Clark 56). Our business is service-based and involves a lot of interaction and communication with customers, therefore the customer service relationship is employed as a tool for making communication and interaction possible. The marketing relationship helps the company track deals, responses, clicks and leads, which are the core aspects of our business. The business model I would associate with Groupon (to an extent) is the free as a business model pattern. Although its services are not free per se, the only point a registered customer is charged is if he/she decides to purchase a product or service by buying a deal. Essentially, all other services on the website are free until a customer decides to purchase a product or service. Also, there are no subscription fees, and one can be a registered member and still retain membership even if he/she is not buying anything. For instance, it is free to browse the site, check on available deals without paying anything. I am therefore convinced that the free as a business model is the closest model Groupon identifies

Saturday, September 21, 2019

How to Read Literature Study Questions Essay Example for Free

How to Read Literature Study Questions Essay How to Read Literature Like a Professor Summer Reading Questions 1. A Faustian bargain is more commonly known as a deal with the devil. In a Faustian bargain the protagonist is often offered something that he or she wants, but with a price: he or she must give up his or her soul. It appears constantly in literature in many different forms. Faustian bargains are present throughout One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest because of all the bets McMurphy makes. He goes into the ward knowing about the big Nurse’s power, and basically convinces the patients to follow him in her overthrow. Their price, however, is the risk of being sent to the Disturbed Ward and receiving electro shock treatment or even a lobotomy. In this way, McMurphy can be seen as a satanic figure, who convinces confused and scared patients to bargain what is left of their sanity to take over a Nurse who has ten times more control over their fate. 2. The grammar of literature is what Foster describes as the reader knowing the structure and rules of literature. He says they are a â€Å"set of conventions and patterns, codes and rules† that each reader learns and utilizes as they are reading. They recognize the structure of a paragraph and a sentence and know how to interpret what is on the page in front of them. The reader learns over time this grammar of literature, and he or she develops his or her own way to read and interpret a text. Readers learn the structure of an essay and thus can anticipate with each sentence what is coming next; it is so ingrained in their heads that it comes naturally. We know that a paragraph introduces a topic, gives examples, and then relates those examples back to the initial topic. In this way, the reader has developed a grammar of literature and reading. 3. Professors use symbols and patterns in a multitude of ways in order to interpret a text. Professors of literature, given their extensive memory and knowledge of literature itself, are bound to recognize the patterns and symbols in nearly every text and relate it to another. They read and think symbolically, meaning they recognize everything as a symbol or something of importance until they realize it’s not employed as a symbol. They constantly question everything in a text in order to find the deeper meaning. They see things as they actually exist, but then also look at the same thing to represent something more substantial. Professors are also more adapted to recognize patterns in literature, meaning they see within the detail the patterns it reveals. They are able to look beyond the actual story with the plot and the characters and see the patterns the author has implemented. They are able to recognize which elements are actually substantial enough to aid the work and the plot, and which ones are just detail. Their ability to distance themselves from the work is what makes them able to recognize the symbols and patterns that a regular reader may not recognize in a work. 4. There are five characteristics to a quest. First, there must be a quester. Next, that quester must have a place to go. Third, he or she must have a stated reason to go there. Fourth, there must be challenges and trials during the journey. Lastly, there must be a real reason to go to the place. Usually, the quester doesn’t know it is an actual â€Å"quest†. The real reason for the quest is the most important, and usually has nothing to do with the actual, stated reason. 5. The usual reason behind a quest is self-knowledge. Quests are often educational and provide the quester with a learning experience that aids their self-discovery. The reason for the quester’s youth and immaturity often has something to do with why they are on a quest, and what they end up learning. The only subject that truly matters on a quest is himself or herself. 6. Our questers: McMurphy, Doctor Spivey, and the twelve patients that join them. A place to go: The patients all leave the hospital for a lake to go on a fishing trip. A stated reason to go there: McMurphy wants to teach the boys how to fish and spend some time outdoors. Challenges and trials: The patients first face trouble when they don’t have a signed release form to be allowed to go on the boat, so the captain refuses to take them. McMurphy then takes the captain back to his office to make some phone calls to sort out the problem. While this happens, the other dock boys start heckling Candy, and the patients, not used to seeing others outside of the hospital, don’t stick up for her and defend themselves. They are not used to having enough confidence to stand up for themselves, since they have never had to, and McMurphy is the only one with enough confidence to yell at the dock boys. Next, the men struggle on the boat when trying to catch fish. None of them know how to reel in a line, and McMurphy is too busy with Candy to help them. So, they have to learn for themselves how to catch the fish and wrestle it on their own. The real reason to go: the fishing trip marks an important change in all of the patients. They come back even more bonded together than they were before, and full of confidence and personality. They come back and are confident enough to yell back at the dock boys, and even start sharing real, hearty laughs. It teaches all of them that if you try hard enough, you will get what you want. It also made them less afraid of the real world, and made them appreciate what was on the outside. 7. In the real world, breaking bread together is an act of sharing and peace, since if you’re breaking bread you’re not breaking heads†. 8. A meal scene is almost always symbolic because they are so difficult and boring to write. If a writer puts in a detailed meal scene, it must have some symbolic value since meals are almost never of real importance in a story. The writer must have a pretty good reason to include one in his or her story. The meal scene often has to deal with the relationships, good or bad, between characters, and often offer a turning point or pivotal change in the story during said meal. The typical meal scene is so mundane that for it to be included in a story and take up a lot of writing, it definitely has to have symbolic value. 9. According to Foster, eating in literature may represent a number of things. Firstly, it can represent communion, coming together, and getting along. A meal scene is written to show how characters are getting along or not getting along. It also can be used to form a bond, to find something in common between one character and another. It is a moment and a form of trust. Meal scenes that go wrong are also written for a purpose. Comradeship† at the table is important to convey in a meal scene, whether it is good or bad. The meal scene is vital in portraying the communion of life. 10. A positive communion scene occurs in One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest on the last night McMurphy is in the ward. They bring in some wine and open up the drug closet, and have a good time in the ward with no one on duty. It has symbolic meaning becau se it is one of the few times the patients have an actual fun time together, they bond and realize that life is too short to not have fun. They enjoy being free of stress and restraints and for once feel like real people again. 11. A negative communion happens in Beloved when Paul D comes to visit 124. He comes and visits Sethe and Denver, both of whom he hasn’t seen in many years and wishes to reconnect with them. However, Paul D’s presence makes Denver uncomfortable and left out. Sethe and Paul D sit down for a meal, and Denver feels alienated. No one comes to their house often, and when someone she doesn’t know comes in who takes her mother’s attention away from her, she is clearly angered. On top of that, Beloved decides to frighten them even more. She suddenly shakes the house to the point where everyone has to duck and cover, and frightens Paul D. She decides to make the communion negative and show symbolically her disgust and hatred for unwelcome men. 12. There are a couple essentials to a vampire story. First, there is an older figure (typically the â€Å"vampire†) that is alluring, dangerous, and representing corrupt values. This older figure then focuses on young, beautiful, innocent women, who are often virginal. This vampire then strips away her youth, her innocence, and corrupts her. When he gets her, he himself grows younger and even more alive than before. His energy is renewed and his life continues, while hers is sucked away as she becomes more like him. Since he has taken her virtue, her death and or destruction become inevitable. And most times, the motive often has to do with sex. 13. There are a lot of things other than literal vampirism that vampires and ghosts represent in literature. They can represent selfishness, exploitation, and refusal to respect autonomy. The ghost of Hamlet’s father is there to point out a problem, rather than just be a fright. Edward Hyde represents the dark side of every man. Vampires and ghosts don’t even have to be literal to represent something. They don’t have to appear in visible forms to be considered a vampire or ghost. They are put in a story to scare, haunt, and frighten people, but also to point out problems, teach a lesson, and protect a character. In Beloved, the ghost of Sethe’s murdered daughter embodies the spirit of Beloved as if she were alive. She haunts Sethe’s home and serves as a reminder of what she did. She can be seen as allegorical, as she represents the past haunting the present as a lesson and reminder of the crime Sethe committed. The relationship between Beloved and Sethe is complicated and often an unhappy one. Beloved’s presence is often destructive to Sethe, Denver, and their home. She creates instability in their household as well as within both women of the house. Though she is dead, she is ever-present, and helps develop the characters of Sethe, Denver, and Paul D. She represents pain and misfortune, but also guidance and hope. 14. Paul Berlin, the protagonist in Going After Cacciato, embodies an author’s â€Å"creative process† in many ways. His story is compiled from many other stories, meaning that all the stories ever written all stem from one story.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Impacts of Chronic Illness: Biological Disruption

Impacts of Chronic Illness: Biological Disruption Chronic illness may cause ‘biographical disruption’. Explain what you understand by this term and drawing on the experiences of your patient. Discuss the different ways in which chronic illness impacts on an individual. Medical encyclopaedia defined disruption as the ‘morphologic defect resulting from the extrinsic breakdown of, or interference with, a developmental process.’[1] In other words, it is the interruption or impediment of a progress.[2] Therefore, biographical disruption is described as how the chronic illness can lead to the loss of self-identity or social interaction in an individual.[3] In this report, I will discuss how chronic illness impacts patients in terms of their behaviour, daily lifestyle, relationships with partners or family members and acceptance of their illness as well as how they cope with it.[4] This report will be illustrated based on my patient’s experience, Ali, a 58-year-old retired office worker from Gelang Patah. Onset and Getting a Diagnosis Chronic illnesses are non-communicable diseases which develop gradually over time. They generally cannot be solved instinctively and are barely to be cured ultimately.[5] In most cases, chronic illnesses are more likely to be insidious where the patients have mild or no symptoms. However, the transition between being asymptomatic to having a chronic illness diagnosis can be challenging for the patient. My patient, Ali, was diagnosed with hypertension in year 2010. Hypertension refers to an elevated systolic blood pressure of 140mmHg or greater and diastolic blood pressure of 90mmHg or greater.[6] It is also a risk factor of myocardial infarction, chronic kidney disease, and stroke. It has been determined as the third leading cause of death worldwide by the World Health Organization and given a reputation as a ‘silent killer’.[7] Before Ali was diagnosed with hypertension, he experienced tiredness and nausea every day. He was shocked because has always led a healthy lifestyle and did sports regularly. Thus, he denied the diagnosis that the GP gave him. At first, he did not follow the routine of taking the medicine, but insisted in taking some herbs to relieve the symptoms. However, it showed no improvement in his condition. Then, he started to take his medication as indicated. Few days later, his symptoms were relieved and he accepted the truth that he is suffering from high blood pressure (BP). Before finally accepting his illness, Ali went through a stage of denial which was described by Freud as a way to protect the ego from anxiety, a defence mechanism, by not admitting that he would never return to his previous way of life and require medication for the rest of his life.[8] Coping with chronic illness Managing a chronic illness is far beyond medicating as it also involves how well a patient adapts to the effects of the symptoms in their day-to-day living. It is important how a patient manages his or her health, emotion and daily life as they can determine the efficacy of the treatment given to the patient. Besides, rather than formal healthcare and coping-with-life-changes being core [9][9][8][9][9][9][9][9]domains, they should eliminate health-compromising behaviours by self-regulatory efforts, and adopt health-enhancing behaviours. Ali said, â€Å"I had to adapt by changing my lifestyle including my diet, controlling my temper and reducing heavy workloads. Sometimes I feel that I am weaker than ever, no longer as fit as what I used to think I was. † The large submerged portion of hidden mass of the iceberg corresponds to the undiagnosed cases which are presymptomatic and unapparent.[10] About one-third of population with high BP are not aware that they have it. In other words, the extrinsic problems of what the patients present are the small constitution of the tip of the ice while the undiagnosed hypertensive patients represent the intrinsic complications deep below the surface.[11] Figure 1 Illustration of Iceberg theory[12] In addition, recent studies indicated that 58% of diagnosed hypertensive patients are receiving appropriate treatment and can communicate effectively with health care providers as well as actively self-manage their illness. This shows the difference between the two groups of individual and the success rates to reduce mortality and premature death of hypertension.[13] Chronic illness sufferers have to learn to manage their symptoms to get better. Parson’s sick role model states the obligations, ‘a sick person (patient) must get well as soon as possible’ and ‘must seek professional help’.[14, 15] Hypertension is a preventable disease, thus it is the patients’ duty to accept the medication regime. Therefore, for Ali to get well, he must actively learn to manage his illness at the same time be guided by doctors (professional role).[16] Psychosocial Impacts Relationships with family members and Daily Living Chronic illness brings a vast impact to the patient and the family. Since the onset of Ali’s illness, there have been some marked changes in his relationship with his wife of 33 years, Mira, who has taken up the responsibility to monitor his health. He finds it hard to accept that he is a patient who requires more care and attention from his wife of whom he used to take care. Despite this, Ali mentioned that the strength of his marriage had improved as he described them being closer than ever although he frequently feels frustrated due to his dependency on Mira. He now appreciates her more than before. Furthermore, Ali’s children who are highly educated always show concern for their father by checking up on him and advising him on his daily diet and exercise regime. Stigma and Isolation Stigmatisation commonly occurs with chronic illness. Stigma is described as depreciating a character which then causes the individual to be discounted.[17] It happens mainly when the patient is diagnosed with certain diseases and they are treated as abnormal or handicaps. This scenario can lead to unhappy consequences. It is then called as â€Å"deviant conditions† when they are not accepted by the society. However, Ali did not feel stigmatised at all as hypertension is one of the commonest diseases among the population. In Malaysia, the prevalence of hypertension was 42.6% in the year 2006 for the residents aged 30 years and above.[18] Furthermore, some of his friends are having the same illness; they generously shared their experiences, ways to handle the disease and methods to control BP. Changes in lifestyle and Uncertainty Life is full of uncertainties. Chronic illness contributes to unpredictable events due to the nature of the illness that can restrict some patients from leading their normal lifestyle. In addition, asymptomatic illnesses could result in distress in patients and their carers when they do not know when the disease will worsen. For Ali, he is uncertain when the BP might be raised as he knows that elevated systolic pressure above 200mmHg increases the risk of mortality from stroke[19] whereas Mira needs to get ready whenever she realises that Ali is unwell. Ali admits to feeling stressed most of the time as he is afraid that a sudden rise in BP may trouble his family, particularly his wife. Mira spends most of her time with Ali, worrying that something bad will happen to him if she leaves him alone. Uncertainty can persist throughout the course of chronic illnesses, not only at diagnosis or onset. In Ali’s case, this led to the feeling of fear and uncertainty to both Ali and his wife about what could happen to him. Stroke is the main concern for Ali as this thunderclap attack will have a huge impact on his independence and quality of life, forcing him to become a burden for his family members. Conclusion In conclusion, chronic illness is not merely a medical condition but it can cause several forms of biographical disruptions that can significantly affect a patient’s life. ‘Biographical disruption’ is one of the major aspects of living with a chronic illness because it can affect the patient’s role in the family and his or her relationship with the family members. In a wider context, it also impacts their daily life and relationship with their friends, colleagues and the community. It could potentially alter the focus of their life against their wishes and retrain them from succeeding theirs previous plans of life such as employment and hobby. For instance, Ali had thought of delaying his retirement, however, he was restricted from accomplishing jobs that he was being assigned to after being diagnosed with a chronic illness. The ability in performing tasks is diminished. Sometimes they are stigmatised as a ‘disabled’ by society. Each and every chronic illness sufferer will undergo different disruptions and changes in their life. Nonetheless, care, attention and support from the family members and society are essential to reduce the impact of the illness. Additionally, improvement on palliative care is necessary to improve the patients’ quality of life. It is important to note that the healthcare system also plays a big role in understanding the social behaviour that surrounds their patients for an efficient and effective health provision to be given. List of Figures Figure 1 Illustration of Iceberg theory References 1.Farlex, Distruption, in thefreedictionary. 2.Disruption, 2014: Research Narrative. 3.Bury, M. the Social Experience of Living with Chronic Illness and Disability. Concepts of Health and Illness: 2007 [cited 2007; Available from: 4.William, S.J., Chronic illness as biographical disruption or biological distruption as chronic illness? Reflections on a core concept. Sociology of health and illness, 2000. 22(1): p. 18. 5.Promotion, N.C.f.C.D.P.a.H. Chronic Diseases. The Power to Prevent, The Call to Control: At A Glance 2009 2009 December 17, 2009 December 17, 2009]; Available from: 6.Malaysia, M., Clinical Practice Guideliness Management of Hypertension, M.o.H. Malaysia, A.o.M.o. Malaysia, and M.S.o. Hypertension, Editors. 2008: Malaysia. p. 70. 7.Maryon-Davis, D.A. Hypertension – the ‘Silent Killer’. May 2005; Available from: 8.centre, W.M., Asthma, F.s. N °307, Editor 2013, World Health Organisation: World Health Organisation. 9.Barry, A.M. and C. Yuill, Understanding the Sociology of Health: An Introduction. 2008: SAGE Publications. 10.Sharma, M. Theories of disease causation. 2012 1 Jan 2014 [cited 2012 26 Nov]; Available from: 11.Tarafdar, D.M.A. iceberg phenonmenance. Available from: 12.Ciulla, M.M., G.L. Perrucci, and F. Magrini. Adaptation and Evolution in a Gravitational Environment — A Theoretical Framework for the Limited Re-Generative Post- Natal Time Window of the Heart in Higher Vertebrates. May 22, 2013 13.Beth Collins Sharp, P.D., R.N., Hypertension Care Strategies, in Closing the Quality Gap2004, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: US Department of Health Human Services. 14.61% of Malaysians UNHEALTHY. 2012 Tuesday, 12 June 2012]; Available from: 15.Scambler, G., Sociology as Applied to Medicine. 6TH ed. 2008, UK: ELSEVIER. 348. 16.Burke-Smith, A. and D.F. McGowan. Introduction to Medical Sociology Available from: 17.Organisation, W.H. 10 FACTS ON OBESITY. 2014; Available from: 18.Hypertension: Clinical management of primary hypertension in adults. 2011 Aug 2011 [cited 2011; Available from: 19.Judyta Cielecka-Piontek, Arkadiusz Styszynski, and K. Wieczorowska-Tobis, Knowledge of Risk Factors for Hypertension in the Elderly. Borgis New Medicine, 2004(1): p. 2-4. Social Science SectionPage 1

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Intertial Confinement Fusion Essay -- Nuclear

Missing Figures INERTIAL CONFINEMENT FUSION 1. Introduction / Beginnings In the 1940s during the development of nuclear explosives, the inertial confinement approach to fusion was born. Weapons researchers determined that by use of high energy sources, such as the fission reaction, light nuclei could be fused, thus creating intense fusion energy. Scientists in the controlled fusion camp also realized that tight compression of fuel pellets could increase the fusion reaction rate which is proportional to fuel density. (Robert A. Gross, Fusion Energy, New York: John Wiley and Sons, 295) Scientists were, at this stage, trying to discover a mechanism which could compress a light-nucleus fuel. The invention of high power lasers encouraged the inertial-confinement camp. The radiation from the laser heats a fuel pellet, and as the plasma from the pellet rapidly expands, a momentum reaction sends compressive waves inward, converging on the pellet's core. The energy in the core causes the ignition of the pellet. The common desire is to obtain a thermonuclear energy yield that exceeds the energy which is required to heat and compress the solid before the pellet explodes; hence the name inertial confinement. Some of the early research in this subject was done by Nuckolls and Kidder of the Livermore Laboratory, and Bosov and Krokhin of the Kurchatov Institute in the USSR. (Gross, 295) Since these great efforts, the scientific community has considered inertial-confinement fusion to be the top alternate method for controlled thermonuclear fusion. The most probable containment, of course, is magnetic confinement fusion. Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) in Princeton, New Jersey is argueably the premier ma... ...died; however, the heavy-ion accelerators show much promise in its short time of consideration. Laser light coupling and laser efficiencies have been a problem for laser-driven designs. Ion-driven devices have problems of their own, particularly in focusing to the required power density. (Dean, 75) The HYBALL-II project as well as other ICF projects today have easily surpassed the yields of the early ICF reactors (SOLASE). In the big picture, however, one should keep in mind that magnetic-confinement devices show much more promise at this point. Works Cited Dean, Stephen O., (ed.). Prospects for Fusion Power. New York: Pergamon Press, 1981. Gross, Robert A. Fusion Energy. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1984. Velarde, Guillermo, et. al, (ed.). Nuclear Fusion by Inertial Confinement: A Comprehensive Treatise. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1993.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Emersons Experience A Close Reading Essay -- essays papers

Emersons Experience A Close Reading In Experience, Ralph Waldo Emerson writes about the human condition shared by all in his uniquely â€Å"Emersonian† perspective. Perhaps one of his most effective works is Experience, an essay on a subject of which Emerson had much â€Å"experience† and personal grief. To fully appreciate Emerson, the reader must closely analyze his writing, with both its obvious meaning, and the experience with which he’s writing. One particular paragraph is especially eloquent, and warrants closer analysis: â€Å"People grieve and bemoan themselves, but it is not half so bad with them as they say. There are moods in which we court suffering, in the hope that here, at least, we shall find reality, sharp peaks and edges of truth†. Emerson’s training as a clergyman shines through here, as he counsels the grief-stricken that things are not as bad as they seem. People who are aggrieved often hope to find some truth at the end of their suffering to make it seem somehow worthwhile. â€Å"But it turns out to be scene-painting and counterfeit. The only thing grief has taught me, is to know how shallow it is. That, like all the rest, plays about the surface, and never introduces me into the reality, for contact with which, we would even pay the costly price of sons and lovers†. Emerson’s preliminary sentences were only meant to scratch the surface -- now he is probing the heart of t he matter. He is stating that there is no deep meaning revealed when we lose someone we love. It is more of a defense mechanism or a means of self-assurance than anything else, because losing the people closest to us defies any tangible meaning. In the next passage, â€Å"Was it Boscovich who found out that bodies never come in contact? Well, s... ...cosmic connection for man, animals, plants. Emerson seems to suggest that grief is merely an escape into self-pity, a way of denying death or what it represents. For Emerson, life was nothing without faith in nature. In nature, nothing can live unless something dies. It is all part of the eternal cycle of life. Experience taught Ralph Waldo Emerson that wallowing in grief provides neither comfort nor closure. It does not answer any questions and does not change anything. However, faith in nature can offer solace during life’s darkest moments. It is a human ‘experience’ which he, fortunately, shared with us all. Bibliography: WORK CITED O’Keefe, Richard R. â€Å"‘Experience’: Emerson on Death.† ATQ (The American Transcendental Quarterly), v9 n2, p. 119 (11). (June 1995).

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Surrogate Motherhood Essay -- essays research papers fc

Surrogate Motherhood: Good or Bad?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  There are many controversies surrounding the idea of surrogate motherhood, by its definition, it is a course of action that goes outside natural reproduction. Although surrogacy was first brought up in the bible it is only until recently that it has actually become an issue for criticism and debate. Factors such as the growth of infertility in modern society, coupled with the declining number of children available for adoption, and the development of surrogacy contract and commercial surrogacy agencies in 1976, have resulted in increasing publicity and public interest in the formation of agreements between infertile couples and surrogate mothers (Stuhmcke, 3). Surrogate motherhood can be approached in more than one way, and some surrogacy procedures receive more condemnation than others.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  One type of surrogacy is when an egg is extracted from the infertile female and placed in a petri dish and is then fertilized by the fertile male’s sperm, the fertilized egg is then placed into the fertile female’s uterus so she can give birth to the child. This procedure is done when the uterus of a female is in some way defective, but her eggs are in fine condition, this is called invitro fertilization surrogacy or IVF surrogacy (Hanafin, 3). IVF surrogacy, or total surrogacy is the procedure that receives the least criticism because the baby is in no way related to its carrier. The more comm...

Monday, September 16, 2019

Philosophy Behind the Leadership Position in a Learning Organization

Imagine this. You have served for years as an assistant to the Principal at a local high school. Recently, the school has become plagued with administrative problems affecting the day to day operations of the school, the quality of education for students, and teacher development. As someone with long-standing experience in that school, you have been promoted to the highest leadership position at that school. Part of your role in the leadership of a learning organization includes policy development, decision making, professional development, and the monitoring of organizational progress. This paper will identify and examine the relevant leadership skills and strategies necessary to develop a successful, thriving learning organization. The philosophy behind the leadership position in a learning organization has emerged in recent years as a concern for parents, teachers and policy-makers alike. Changes must be implemented in the current supervisory process, as the role of leadership in a school setting has progressed from the principal as an instructional leader, to the principal as a transactional leader and, most recently, to the role of transformational leader. High performing leaders have a personal vision for their school and the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to develop, articulate and implement a shared vision that is supported by the larger organization and the school community (Anonymous author, 2001). Numerous studies on the topic have revealed the importance of leadership skills and strategies of the school leader. These studies clearly indicate that improved education for students requires improved leadership and supervisory skills. The leader in a learning organization must develop and administer policies that provide a safe school environment and establish operational plans and processes to accomplish strategic goals. Research indicates that a necessary aspect of policy development is the intertwining of the daily operations of the school to school and student learning goals (Anonymous author, 2001). Additionally, the major sources of fiscal and nonphysical resources for the school including business and community resources must be analyzed and identified (Anonymous author, 2001). The financial and material assets must be managed, as well as capital goods and services, allocating resources according to district or school priorities (Anonymous author, 2001). Policy development includes an efficient budget planning process that is driven by district and school priorities and involves the staff and community. A strong leadership quality is the ability to identify and organize resources to achieve curricular and instructional goals (Anonymous author, 2001). Research indicates that the process of planning, developing, implementing, and evaluating a district budget must be analyzed, and techniques and organizational skills necessary to lead and manage a complex and diverse organization must be demonstrated (Anonymous author, 2001). Furthermore, policy development includes the planning and scheduling of one's own and others' work so that resources are used appropriately, and short- and long-term priorities and goals are met (Anonymous author, 2001). Policy development lies at the basis for a successful learning institution where the needs and goals of students, teachers and the community are met. Research indicates that the decision a leader in a learning organization makes has a strong influence on what will or will not occur in classrooms throughout the country. The leader must take a results oriented approach, and frame, analyze, and resolve problems using appropriate problem solving techniques and decision making skills (Anonymous author, 2001). In this way, good decisions can be made by viewing events and problems from multiple perspectives, and through the use of multiple sources of data to inform decisions. Additionally, decisions must be made based on the moral and ethical implications of policy options and political strategies (Anonymous author, 2001). Research indicates that the leader must recognize situations that require forcefulness and self-confidence in making decisions and delegate authority and responsibility clearly and appropriately to accomplish organization goals (Anonymous author, 2001). Finally, logical conclusions and making high quality, timely decisions must be based on the best available information. According to Marks and Printy (2003), the decision making tasks to be accomplished encompass those of supervision and evaluation of instruction, of staff development activities, of curriculum development knowledge and activities, of group development knowledge and activities, of action research, of development of a positive school climate, and of the creation of links between school and community. Technical skills include goal setting, assessment and planning, instructional observation, research and evaluation; whereas, interpersonal skills are those of communication, motivation, decision making, problem solving, and conflict management (Marks & Printy, 2003). In order to meet the rapidly changing needs of our students, teachers must be given the authority to make appropriate instructional decisions. Therefore, the basis for school leadership must include teachers and parents, as well as the principal, in the role of problem finding and problem identification (Marks & Printy, 2003). Youngs and King (2002) state that a prominent way in which leaders shape school conditions and teaching practices is through their beliefs and actions regarding teacher professional development. Individual teacher competence is necessary for effective classroom practice, and that teachers must be able to integrate knowledge of students, subject matter, and teaching context in planning out units and lessons and assessing student work (Youngs & King, 2002). The studies discussed by Youngs and King examine the relationship of capacity to instructional quality and student achievement, finding that effective school leaders can sustain high levels of capacity by building trust, creating structures that promote teacher learning, assist in the implementation of general reforms. Their study results also suggest that during transitions in school leadership, incoming leaders must be cognizant of shared norms and values among their faculties before initiating new practices into the curriculum, instruction, or school organization (Youngs & King, 2002). Other research on the topic indicates that speaking with teachers in and outside of instructional conferences was the cornerstone of effective leadership (Blase, 1999). Organizational leaders in a school setting use five primary talking strategies with teachers to promote reflection: 1) making suggestions; 2) giving feedback; 3) modeling; 4) using inquiry and soliciting advice and opinions; and 5) giving praise (Blase, 1999). Another important aspect of effective leadership is the promotion of teachers' professional growth with respect to teaching methods and collegial interaction about teaching and learning (Blase, 1999). According the to Blase study, effective instructional leaders used six teacher development strategies: 1) emphasizing the study of teaching and learning; 2) supporting collaboration efforts among educators; 3) developing coaching relationships among educators; 4) encouraging and supporting redesign of programs; 5) applying the principles of adult learning, growth, and development to all phases of staff development; and 6) implementing action research to inform instructional decision making. The study results found that school leaders that were effective provided former staff development opportunities to address emergent instructional needs. These opportunities resulted in innovation and creativity, variety in teaching, risk taking and positive responses to student diversity as well as effects on motivation, efficacy and self-esteem (Blase, 1999). Monitoring of Organizational Progress Finally, a core leadership skill of a learning organization is the continual monitoring of the school's progress. The studies discussed by Youngs and King (2002) reach the conclusion that school leaders can affect achievement indirectly by establishing a mission or set of goals and building school-wide commitment to them. As a result, higher student achievement can be associated with higher levels of school professional community and program coherence (Youngs & King, 2002). Along with monitoring the school's goals and mission, leaders must continue to facilitate the development and implementation of a shared vision and strategic plan for the school that places student and faculty learning at the center (Anonymous author, 2001). The leader of a learning organization must align instructional objectives and curricular goals with the shared vision and articulate the district's or school's vision, mission and priorities to the community (Anonymous author, 2001). The learning organization must be understood as a political system, relating the vision, mission, and goals to the welfare of students, and its' leader must articulate and reinforce that vision in written and spoken communications. In this way, a positive school culture for learning is created, along with conditions that enhance the staff's desire and willingness to focus energy on achieving educational excellence (Anonymous author, 2001). Finally, the leader must model professionalism, collaboration and continuous learning in order to successfully monitor the organizations progress. Learning to become a leader of an learning organization is a complex, multidimensional task. If school leaders believe that growth in student learning is the primary goal of schooling, then it is a task worth learning. In today's rapidly changing world that means becoming a leader of leaders by learning and working with teachers, students, and parents to improve instructional quality. Goal setting and problem solving become site-based, collective collaborative activities. The leadership of the principal is pivotal in ensuring that the process is informed of all school issues, especially those that relate to student instruction. As indicated by the literature available, policy development, decision making, professional development and progress monitoring are all key areas for leadership. If these areas are enhanced by strong leadership qualities, the future of the educational system will remain very bright. Additional studies on the leadership skills and strategies necessary to effectively lead a learning organization will assist in determining the next steps of our future leaders.

Hardness of Water

INTRODUCTION: WHAT IS HARDNESS OF WATER:It is when water passes through or over deposit such as limestone; the level of Ca ²Ã¢  »and Mg ²Ã¢  ºand HCOâ‚Æ' ions present in the water can greatly increase and cause the water to be classified as hard water. This term results from the fact that cation and magnesium ions in water combine with soap molecules, making it hard to get suds. High level of water ion such as Ca ²Ã¢  » and Mg ²Ã¢  ºÃ‚  can cause scaly deposits in plumbing appliances & boilers.These two ions also combine chemically with soap molecules resulting in decreased cleansing. The American water works Association indicates that the ideal quality water should not contain more than 80mg/l of total hardness as CaCOâ‚Æ'. High levels of total hardness are not considered a health concern. There are two types of Hardness:Temporary hardness: this is due to the presence of bicorbonates of calcium and magnesium. It can be easily removed by boiling. Permanent hardness: this is due to the presence of chlorides & sulphate of calcium & magnesium. This type of hardness cannot be removed by boiling.MOTIVATIONI was bothered that the water in Ilara community doesn’t combine easily with soap leading to excessive consumption of WATER.ENVIRONMENTAL SIGNIFICANCE:Scales are formed as inner coating of the pipelines prevents corrosion Absolute soft waters are corrosive and dissolve metalsMore causes of cardio vascular diseases are reported in soft water areas Hard water is useful to growth of children due to the presence of calcium Hard water cause excessive consumption of soap used for cleaning purpose, sodium soaps react with multivalent metallic cations to form a precipitate, thereby lose their surfactant properties. Lathering doesn’t take place until all hardness ions precipitate out.APPARATUS Conical Flask {250ml} Burette with retort stand Beaker Wash bottles Standard flask PipettesMETHOD Simple titration methodREAGENTS Ammonium chloride Amm onium hydroxide Ilara-Mokin water {Hâ‚‚O} Magnesium sulphate Erichrome black T EDTA (Disodium salt).PREPARATION OF REAGENTS 1. Standard solution of EDTAThe usual reagent is the disodium salt, which is a dehydrate, Mr=372.24; it is available in sufficiently pure form to be used as a primary standard for most purposes. If necessary, it may be dried at 80 ° for four days to remove a small percentage of water that may have been absorbed. The solution should be stored in plastic containers rather than glass bottles. The solution is stable but if stored in glass bottles (particularly if the glass is new), the concentration of a dilute solution will decrease appreciably with time as metal ions are extracted out of the glass. To prepare 2 1 of the reagent, dissolve 7.44g of the salt in enough deionized water to make exactly 2 1 of solution. 2. Buffer solution(pH 10)Add 17.5g of ammonium chloride to 142cm ³ of ammonium chloride to 142cm ³ of 0.88 ammonia solution and make up to 25 0cm ³ with deionized water. 3. Eriochrome Black T indicatorThis indicator can be purchased as a powder. The solid is hygroscopic, and so must be stored in a tightly stoppered container.EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE (testing of the Ilara-mokin water) We Pipetted 200ml of the water sample and transfer it to a clean 250ml conical flask. We Added 2ml of Ammonia buffer solution to the water sample so that the pH will be maintained between 9 & 10. We added few drops of EBT indicator to the conical flask and the sample turns to wine red in color. Before we started the titration; we rinsed the burette with few ml of EDTA  then Filled the burette with 0.02m EDTA solution & adjusted to zero then fixed it in retort stand. We titrated the sample against the EDTA solution in the burette till all calcium and magnesium ions present in the sample reacted with the EDTA.The appearance of blue color indicated that all Ca and Mg ions were complex with EDTA and forms a metal EDTA complex. i.e. the end poin t of the titration We Noted down the burette reading and repeated titration two more times.RESULT OF THE EXPERIMENTSAMPLE A FINAL READINNGS 1.50 1.40 1.40 INITIAL READINGS 0.00 0.00 0.00 TITRE VALUES 1.50 1.40 1.40Average titre value= 1.50 +1.40+1.40 =4.3 3 3  =1.43cm ³Ã‚  =1.43 x 20= 28.6 cm ³SAMPLE B FINAL READINGS 2.90 3.10 2.90 INITIAL READINGS 0.00 0.00 0.00 TITRE VALUES 2.90 3.10 2.90Average titre value=2.90+3.10+2.90 = 8.90 3 3  =2.97cm ³Ã‚  =2.97 x 20= 59.4cm ³

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Early Birds vs. Night Owls

Early Birds vs. Night Owls People today are leading two different lifestyles. Some of them are living an early bird style while others are living a night owl style. An early bird is a person who always gets up early in the morning, sets out for work early and strictly organize his/her time schedules. In contrast, a night owl is a person who always stays up late into the night, enjoys the exciting and colorful night life of the city, or works extremely hard late at night.To illustrate the existing differences and similarities, we will take a look at the perceptions of life value, and the divisions between these two life patterns in the following text. Their differences and similarities are of equal importance in our discussions. Early birds and night owls have different perceptions in their life attitudes toward their time-spending value, health concepts and everyday habits. They have different viewpoints of how time should be spent. Early birds who strictly follow the cycle of their biological clocks, believe no extravagance in spending time uncontrolledly in night-time entertainment.They obviously observe the rule of the Earth orbit, rising with the sun and resting during the night. For them, time should be treasured, and it can never be wasted in indulgence. However, night owls hold a different perception. They believe that time can never be exhausted especially the night time. They are more active and energetic after the sun is set. For them, indulgence in life is of better value than time itself, which seems endless. Meanwhile, they believe in different health concepts. Early birds favor the principle of healthy habits and a healthy life.They consider the form of â€Å"early to bed, early to rise† as a normal and healthy way of living. On the contrary, night owls discard the traditional health concept of obeying the biological clock. They are less concerned about health problems that might be brought up by being a night owl. Consequently, they will a lways feel drowsy, and in a long run, it will cause permanent damages to their livers in lack of adequate sleep. As a result of these different perceptions, early birds and night owls are different in their habits of life. Early birds abiding by organized life pattern are leading a more regular life than night owls.They keep to the clock in their arrangements of daily matters and seldom break their rules of a stable timetable. In contrast, night-owl style practitioners care less about routines. They entertain themselves or work hard during night time and would rather take a recovery by sleeping during the day. Although there are some differences in the respective viewpoints of early birds and night owls concerning life value, they have one thing in common: They treasure their chances in life. Early birds like to be punctual in their work and their lives. They manage their orbits by working hard and obeying the rules.In comparison, night owls would not miss their opportunities in the night time. They work hard while playing hard at the same time. In a word, different perceptions of value determine the lifestyle a person may choose – an early bird or a night owl. Ages and professions are also the factors to determine the lifestyles. As for their ages, early birds tend to be older while night owls tend to be younger. Early birds are mostly grown-up people, who are more mature and financially independent in choosing when to work and when to rest than the younger night owls.Contrastingly, younger night owls have not been burdened with too many social responsibilities. They are not psychologically mature enough to be obedient to the rules of day and night. So they fall easily to the attractions of night life. Sometimes, a person’s occupation also determines his or her choice of life patterns. Early birds are normally those with regular working hours. They are managers, accountants, lawyers, teachers and so on, who are always on day-time duty. In contra st, night owls are normally working with night shifts. They are factory workers, bar tenders, club managers and so on.However, as society advances, the distinctions between ages and professions in this respect are blurred as night life attracts more and more people in the city, youth or grown-up. People tend to work more hours at night or go out to pubs or night clubs to have a drink, to get acquainted with some new friends and to chat and relax. Early birds and night owls are somehow the same to some people who are active both day and night. The consequences of being an early bird or a night owl differ in respect of personal health and social effects. In a long-term point of view, an early bird can enjoy better health than a night owl.By sleeping early and getting up early, an early bird can always maintain a healthy body. A healthy body can be the source of a healthy mind. A night owl, however, may face the consequence that in a long run, staying up too late every night will damag e his or her good health. Meanwhile, an early bird can obey the rules while a night owl may not. Daylight shows everything delightful while darkness at night may arouse some undesired passion of mankind. In our social life, we can see some unwanted side-effects of night owls, such as severe alcohol drinking or drug taking.Consequently, an early bird style, in a long-term value, is more recommendable than a night owl style. In conclusion, an early bird and a night owl possess different life values and habits. Ages or occupations are sometimes the factors to determine a person’s choice of being an early bird or a night owl. Both of their choices may have effects on their health and on the society. Today, some people would agree with the old saying, â€Å"the early bird gets the worms† while the others would be in favor of â€Å"the night owl gets the rats†. Simply put, people should cherish the days and nights, either being an early bird or a night owl.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Evaluate Critical Thinking

My perception of our team’s metaphors as a whole is that we all are capable of expressing our thoughts about things in our lives as we see them through metaphors. Each of our metaphors allowed others to identify with our thoughts by connecting words with our senses. The metaphors that my team members have written are descriptive and easy to understand. The metaphors that the team members have written were very good and descriptive in my opinion. Personal Barriers None of our metaphors seemed to have any thinking errors in them such as, egocentric thinking, polarized thinking, or over-generalizations. Personalized barriers such as, enculturation was present in some of our metaphors and did affect the way we critically thought them through. Because most of our metaphors were based on things in our lives it was not surprising that these sources produced metaphors with enculturation. I think everyone, especially myself, has to be careful not to allow personal barriers get in the way. By not allowing their personal barriers to get in the way they were able to create easily understood metaphors. I think that the team did a good job in doing this. Language The next tool is language I think that the way the team constructed their metaphors through the use of language was clear and interesting. I do not really understand how someone could accurately communicate using metaphors. We as a society do not communicate this way and I find that it would be tough to communicate in this manner. We are meant to speak a certain way in order to communicate accurately for instance in America we speak English and in Germany they speak German. It would be difficult to go to Germany and speak English and communicate effectively if they only understood a little English. I personally could not communicate using metaphors to communicate accurately. The language in which we write, talk, and think helps for the individuals listen understand the message that we are trying to convey to them. So we must be clear in the message and the wording that we use to get our message across. The team did this well when contrasting their metaphors. I was able to understand what they were saying in most of their metaphors. One example is from Stephens metaphor about family â€Å"Constant and Changing; Joy and happiness; Frustration and confusion,† The language that he used describes the emotions that a family goes through and the language describe it well. Feelings The majority of our metaphors reflected our feelings towards family, events, and places. Our feelings were put into our metaphors to help connect our words to their meaning. In my opinion this is where the metaphor becomes powerful. It seems to me that there is a lot of feeling in many of their metaphors. One can feel it as it is read. The next tool is creativity check I believe that most of the metaphors exhibited a lot of creativity while remaining clear. Like feeling I think that creativity plays a very important role in the metaphors. The next tool used is that of organization. Creative Thinking I feel that all of our metaphors were creatively thought through. We successfully transformed our thoughts into a language that everyone could understand and appreciate. From what I can tell most of the metaphors created exhibited some kind of order. The last tool was logic. I also feel that the team’s metaphors seemed to follow this well. I would say that over all the metaphors that the team created was very creative, and fun to read. I would also say that some seemed to contain a lot of feeling, which also made them more enjoyable to read. By putting their feelings behind the metaphors and made the metaphors originally and showed that creative thinking was utilized when writing the metaphors.

Friday, September 13, 2019

What difines a good community how do we build better Essay

What difines a good community how do we build better - Essay Example According to Wikipedia, the Spanish National Health System aims to extend services to the entire population. It also has the provision to have comprehensive health care with high standards. Spain is known for a lot of products. Their economy is affected by their produce of olive oil, several kinds of fruits, vegetables, poultry, metal, and textile. Most of their significant dealings are with France, Italy, Great Britain, and Germany. Despite its economic progress in recent years, it still falls back as compared to other European countries (â€Å"Spain: Economy†). Concerning eco-villages, most projects are in the starting phase. In a social networking site that aims to sustain environment friendly communities, a hectare has been purchased to be developed into a garden haven for its future occupants (â€Å"Sustainable Eco-villages†). As what is shown in the assessment of the State of the Environment Report that was published in 2010, areas affected by sulfur oxide have de creased over the years. Harmful gasses are mostly pervasive in metropolitan areas but not so in rural places. Spain’s different zones are taken into thorough consideration when it comes to the assessments (â€Å"Air Pollution†). On the other hand, what is actually happening in the society may be different from the ideals that are being acknowledged. Like any other nation, problems arise to challenge noble community goals and philosophies. Regarding its health care system, getting sick may be costly as compared to other countries like the United Kingdom or Canada (Spanish Habitat, â€Å"Moving and Living in Spain†). The Spanish Health Services do not address the comprehensive benefits like others have. Nursing homes are under the respective authorities per district. From the same online source, employment is also said to be difficult especially for foreigners. Most jobs are seasonal depending on holidays and other events.

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Implications Of Digital Panopticism And Profiling Essay

Implications Of Digital Panopticism And Profiling - Essay Example As argued by Jason and Detlev (2010) the development of a system of consumer segment that was referred to as A Classification of Residential Neighbourhoods ACORN that was focused at proper storage of consumer information was essential. One of the notable icons who significantly contributed in market segmentation through information technology is Jonathan Robbin. Based on his contributions and development of software in the marketing field, social clusters emerged. Another implication of digital Panopticism was improved market intelligence. Through storing of information that related to various market segments, marketers are now able to clearly understand socio-economic factors, consumer’s preferences and tastes that are fundamental in the production and delivery of products. Firms are in a position to emulate effective marketing mix that matches the needs of their customers. Emergence of socio-demographic surveillance and real development in consumer surveillance is another ma jor result of the digitalization. This was based on the extensive marketing studies that include algorithmic analysis and data mining. As a result of the extensive use of information technologies, companies can now identify behavioural relationship and consumption patterns that could not be recognized before the use of modern technologies. For example, through the use of internet, consumers can now give feedback that is used by companies such as Coca-Cola to produce brands that are needed by their consumers.

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Management decisions Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Management decisions - Essay Example First and fore most, visual interface for decision flow creation should be evident within the management system. This however, means that each techie in the line of engineering field should learn new tools and techniques each week or even months. I must however, ensure that flexible management of multiple decision flows are met since the technological environment do changes faster with time. Ability to use data from external data sources as well as other systems is an aspect that I should put in mind and manipulate. In addition, building scorecards and models within the employees is an aspect that I should consider since they trigger the evolution of new technologies and bring about management solution. Other solution to the prevailing management issue like defining flexibility between different participants and their decision making process should be given a forefront action to avail effectiveness in the management decisions which incur positive result in management mechanism. Summarily, it is therefore important while am making decision in my company to make sure that both portfolio and the projects within the company components are

Tuesday, September 10, 2019

How have low cost airlines affected the development of the aviation Research Paper

How have low cost airlines affected the development of the aviation industry - Research Paper Example The seemingly bright future of these carriers poses interesting questions in regards to what effect they have and will have on the whole aviation industry. America’s Southwest Airlines and Europe’s Ryanair both offer the best examples of low cost carriers that have transformed the airline industry in the regions they operate. This paper will analyse the effects that the low cost airlines have on the development of the aviation industry. The Southwest Effect Short Background In the American aviation industry Southwest is the fastest growing airline having been established back in 1971 with just 3 aircrafts. Today is has about 540 aircrafts (all of which are Boeing 737s) which form the most modern flee in the world. This airline has an unbeaten profit record in the American industry of 17 consecutive years when considering all the quarters of every financial year till 2008 first quarterly report (Southwest 2011). Southwest also boasts of a customer base of more than 85 mi llion per year which is more than that of Delta, American and United airlines. It is notably in the high-end competition due to its low fares, quality of customer service and on-time arrivals. Its major and direct competitors are JetBlue, Air Trans and others like Delta. Due to its low cost model of operations the airline spends 50 to 70 percent less than the major carriers in the same market (Stevenson 2008). This hugely explains the low fares, high quality of service, huge fleet of modern aircrafts and long profitability streak. In essence the Southwest Effect is described using three principles. These principles translate to the major impacts that low cost airlines have on the industry. The first is that with the presence of Southwest Airlines in a market, passenger numbers will increase. This is dictated by the fact that the airline brings in competition especially in ticket prices thereby attracting more customers. The second is that competing airports to those that Southwest o perates in witness a decrease in passenger traffic (Nigel, David & George 2003). The third is that Southwest brings in more competition in a market or route which forces competing airlines to lower their fares in order to remain competitive in their segment. On many occasions when an airline starts serving a new route it begins by offering low fares to attract customers. After some time these airlines adjust their fares upwards to level up with competitors’. However, this is not the case with Southwest Airlines which starts by offering low fares and maintains them as such (Doring 2009). This is a major pricing behaviour depicted by Southwest in comparison with its airlines. When Southwest enters a new route it not only results in lower fares from competitors but also increased Passenger per Day Each Way (PDEW). The following graph shows how fares generally decreased as passenger traffic increased between some of the most active years in the American airline industry; Fares an d passenger traffic (Robinson, 2009) The graph below shows the percentage of change in the market that Southwest operates which shows that almost all reduced their fares for both leisure and business travels. Percentage of change in the market that Southwest operates (Robinson, 2009) Deregulation The airline industry in the United States received a complete turnaround soon after the low cost airlines started emerging.

Monday, September 9, 2019

Client Orientation and the Effective Ways for Continuous Improvement Term Paper

Client Orientation and the Effective Ways for Continuous Improvement - Term Paper Example siness environment, administrators and managers need to prioritize customer needs and customer satisfaction to facilitate a strong customer service chain. They should organize and manage all processes in their organizations with an aim of attracting and retaining customers through customer focused practices and strategies. This can be done through creating guidelines and strategies, improving the skills and competencies of their employees, and creating quality benchmarks and methods of measuring customer satisfaction effectiveness in their companies. All managers and staff must understand the importance of customer service and should be able to link it to customer orientation. By recognizing that the company benefits most from loyal customers through generation of more profits and creating a good image to the public, they must identify and utilize efficient customer service delivery principles to be used by all employees and position the same services in a competitive manner in the market. Commitment to continued improvement can only be done through continued management and monitoring of customer service quality. Customer orientation holds that the main task of the organization is to determine the perceptions, needs, and wants of the target markets and to satisfy them through the design, communication, pricing and delivery of appropriate and competitively viable offerings (Kotler 41). All external and internal customers in a company want provision of good quality products and services in time and in a continuous manner. To achieve this, an organization must put in place strategies and guidelines that makes satisfying the needs of their customers their primary objective with the long term goal of developing and sustaining a long time beneficial customer relationship. Customer and client satisfaction should be the ultimate goal of all firms because both theoretical and empirical research links a firm’s business performance to the satisfaction of its clients

Sunday, September 8, 2019

Research Question Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Question - Research Paper Example Even though relationships between mothers and their children serve as a relevant source of support and protection even if they are not of the best quality, parents are not the only people who support children and help them deal with difficult life situations. Relationships between siblings and children are extremely important in the early childhood because children cannot take care after themselves and their parents ask siblings to help them by staying with the child for some short period of time. In the middle childhood siblings mediate conflicts in family relationships and become the source of protection for children. Gass, Jenkins and Dunn say that relationships between children and siblings become even more protective when there is a conflict in the marriage or parents make a decision to divorce. Overall, the article provides a deep insight into relationships between children and their relatives confirming the thesis that their relationships are of protective nature and they matt er a lot for creating supportive climate inside the

Saturday, September 7, 2019

Nursing Research websites Part 2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Nursing Research websites Part 2 - Essay Example gs, 4) collating all evidences and formulating recommendation, 5) putting recommendation into practice, and 6) determining the effects of the application (Oncology Nursing Society). Evidence-based medicine (EBM) and evidence-based nursing (EBN) are subsets of evidence-based practice (EBP). They both need the skill to sift among the very vast information available, and pick out which ones are important for the situation at hand. Both of them aim to alleviate the condition of the patient by planning work-up by integrating findings from appropriate studies and health professional’s expertise and patient wishes. In fact, based on the steps in EBM provided by Donald (2002) and comparing them with the steps of EBN described above, they seem to be very similar. Despite the similarities of EBM and EBN, there are differences as well. First, since physicians are primarily tasked to plan and to provide treatment and therapy to their patients, EBM mostly deals with the biomedical aspect of healthcare. For example, doctors might try to find evidence of the effectiveness of a treatment option on certain subpopulations (Donald, 2002), probably having the same demographics as the patient in hand. In effect, EBM becomes much more crucial since doctor’s decisions are more likely a matter of life and death for the patient. It allows individualization of therapy, resulting to less adverse risks and more positive outcomes during recovery. On the other hand, nurses are most likely expected to enact some of the instructions of the doctors, and to provide what McSherry described as a holistic biopsychosocial care to the patients. Distribution of meals, ensuring medicine intake, monitoring vital signs, and probably providing an environment conducive for the recovery of patients are just some of the nurses’ roles. Thus, although important, their decisions may not be as crucial as that of the doctors’, who determine what kind of foods are allowed to the patient, and what

Friday, September 6, 2019

Society and Education Essay Example for Free

Society and Education Essay Young peoples decision making is influenced by a number of social factors. Identify three major influences and discuss their impact. Today young people are regarded as the troubled community within the society we Live in, however it is the young people who are to set out our future in years to come. Their decisions is life will determine how this world is run, and society as a whole Should not judge but encourage them to succeed in whatever they should decide to Pursue a career in. It is therefore essential that certain social factors will influence Their decisions. I have identified three of the major factors, which I believe have the highest amount of Influence on youth and what they decide to do in the future, the three factors I have Chosen are; Family, Society and Education. These three summarise the life of a child And can have a major effect on what they choose to do in life, whether higher Education is an option or a life of unemployment and seeking other opportunities Arise. Family Family is defined as a universal social group, which live within the same household. Today families are identified as the main source for the growth of a young child, Without a family the child would merely be able to grow into a well brought up child In society. The family constructs of a mother and a father, perhaps a sibling also. However in some communities the case of a family is split in two, the father is mainly The main culprit for the split and the mother becomes the main influence over the Child. However if the young person is a male, the problem arises that they have no Father to look up to, or a father figure in fact, therefore it is essential that families Work together for their childrens sake. If the male child has no father it can influence The decisions they make in the future due to the guidance issues they have faced in the Past, this can be the same case vice-versa with the mother and daughter situation. The family holds within itself the future of society. the family is the vital environment where every child brought into the world is welcomed (Pope John Paul 2nd (1993)) The quote above taken from Pope John Paul 2nd is a vital quote of which societies can. Base their family life upon, however each society is different, in some areas of Liverpool it can be said that family life is not the most rewarding and most families end in Divorce or a major split, affecting the child. The child is therefore affected by the way the parent or main family member in the household treats them, this can affect the Way the child reacts to certain decisions in life. If the adult treats the child with Disrespect and violence then the childs future will likely involve the same decisions, Instead of a life in higher education and achievement.